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Reference Range Information

last updated: Fri Oct 24 00:19:13 2014

Current Reference Range Information
Test Name Test Code Reference Range
1- hour 50 gram Glucose Loading ScreenGLT11 hour post-50 g po glucose, without regard to whether patient had been fasting: 70 -139 mg/dL
14Q32 IGH Rearrangement FISH (New test)IGHQ32Not detected
1p and 19q deletion FISHRatio > 0.8 (no deletion)
2 Hour, 75 gram Glucose Tolerance Test, Non-pregnancy OGT, GT120
Fasting 70-99 mg/dL
Normal < 140 mg/dL
Impaired glucose tolerance 140-199 mg/dL
Diabetes mellitus > 199 mg/dL*


* If confirmed on another day by repeat OGT, or a diagnostic elevation of the fasting or non-fasting glucose.
2 Hour, 75 gram Glucose Tolerance Test, Pregnancy OGTP2. GT60 & GT120
Fasting < 92 mg/dL
1 hour < 180 mg/dL
2 hour < 153 mg/dL
21-Hydroxylase Antibody (New test)21HANegative
3 hour 100 gram Glucose Tolerance Test, Pregnancy OGTP
Fasting < 95 mg/dL
1 hour < 180 mg/dL
2 hour < 155 mg/dL
3 hour < 140 mg/dL
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 24 hour urine5HQT
24 hour urine
2-10 years < 8.0 mg/d
> 10 years < 6.0 mg/d
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid, random urine5HQTR
2-10 years ≤ 12.0 mg/g creatinine
> 10 years ≤ 10.0 mg/g creatinine
7-DehydrocholesterolDHC7See Additional Information
ABL Kinase domain mutationsKDSQNone detected
ABO and Rh Typing PanelABRH
ABO onlyABO
ABO/Rh ConfirmationCHEK
ALK Gene Rearrangement FISH (New test)< 15%
Acanthamoeba & Naeglaria, Direct examP409Negative
AcetaminophenAAPH
Therapeutic 10-20 mg/L
Toxic > 150 mg/L (4 hours post ingestion)
Acetylcholine Receptor Binding AntibodyACRA
Negative ≤ 0.30 nmol/L
Equivocal 0.31-0.49 nmol/L
Positive ≥ 0.50 nmol/L
Acid Phosphatase, TotalAPHT0.0-4.3 U/L
Activated Partial Thromboplastin TimePTT
Age Normal range
Full term infant, 0-5 day old 25.0-60.0 seconds
Full term infant, 6 days-3 months 24.0-50.0 seconds
>3 months 22.2 - 33.0 seconds


An infant reference range has not been experimentally determined using our current PTT reagent. The PTTs of normal infants are longer than those of adults due to lower factor levels in the first months of life; the infant reference ranges provided (5 days, 3 months) are based on published literature (Ref: Andrew M et al. Blood 1987; 70-165). This publication further indicates that although trending longer, PTT values at 3 months may not differ statistically from adult values. If there is concern for clotting factor deficiency or inhibitor in an infant, factor activity assays should be requested if clinically indicated.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia FISH Panel CYAML
Acylcarnitine ProfileACYLPsee table
Acylglycine ProfileAGLY
2-Ethylmalonic Acid 0.5-20.2 µg/mg creatinine
2-Methylsuccinic Acid 0.4-13.8 µg/mg creatinine
Glutaric Acid 0.6-15.2 µg/mg creatinine
Isobutyrylglycine < 0.01-11.0 µg/mg creatinine
n-Butyrylglycine 0.1-2.1 µg/mg creatinine
2-Methylbutyrylglycine 0.3-7.5 µg/mg creatinine
Isovalerylglycine 0.3-14.3 µg/mg creatinine
n-Hexanoylglycine 0.2-1.9 µg/mg creatinine
n-Octanoylglycine 0.1-2.1 µg/mg creatinine
3-Phenylpropionylglycine < 0.01-1.1 µg/mg creatinine
Suberylglycine < 0.01-11.0 µg/mg creatinine
trans-Cinnamoylglycine 0.2-14.7 µg/mg creatinine
Dodecanedioic Acid (12 DCA) 0.1-1.1 µg/mg creatinine
Tetradodecanedioic Acid (14 DCA) < 0.01-1.0 µg/mg creatinine
Hexadodecanedioic Acid (16 DCA) < 0.01-1.0 µg/mg creatinine
Adenosine Deaminase & Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Enzymes ADAPQ
Adenosine Deaminase, CSF (New test)ADAC
Adenosine Deaminase, Peritoneal fluid (New test)ADAPT
Adenosine Deaminase, Pleural fluid (New test)ADAPL
Adenovirus AntibodyADEN
Adenovirus DNAADVP
Adrenocorticotropic hormoneACTH
≥18 years 6-50 ng/L
3-17 years 9-57 ng/L
<3 years Not established


Reference ranges adopted from Quest Diagnostics as determined in adult and pediatric groups using the same methodology (Siemens Immulite 2000 chemiluminescent assay). The Quest adult reference range was verified by in house testing of 10 male and 23 female lab volunteers. Owing to circadian variation in ACTH levels, the reference ranges are only applicable to samples collected between 0700 and 1000 hours.
Alanine transaminaseALT Male
0 - 17 years 20-60 U/L
≥18 years 12-60 U/L


Female:
0 - 3years 20-60 U/L
4 years - 17 years 20-50 U/L
≥18 years 11-50 U/L


Note:
1. Normal range for children 0 to <18 years adapted from "Pediatric Reference Intervals", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 4.
2. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 269 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Albumin (Microalbumin), 24 hour urineAU24 24 hour collection:
Normal < 30 mg/D
Microalbuminuria 30-299 mg/D
Nephropathy > 300 mg/D
Albumin (Microalbumin), spot urineAUR Random urine:
Normal < 30 mg/g creatinine
Microalbuminuria 30-299 mg/g creatinine
Nephropathy > 300 mg/g creatinine
Albumin, Body FluidALBB
Albumin, CSF (See also IgG Index, CSF)ALBC6.6-44.2
Albumin, Serum / PlasmaALB
0-7 days 1.9-4.0 g/dL
8 days – 11 months 2.7-4.8 g/dL
1 year – 17 years 3.1-4.8 g/dL
≥18 years 3.5-4.8 g/dL


Note:
1. Normal range for infants 0-7 day old adopted from "Pediatric Reference Ranges", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 4 Bromcresol purple (BCP)
2. Normal range for children 8 days to less than 18 years old adopted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
3. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
AldolaseADSE Pediatric males & females:
< 24 months 3.4-11.8 U/L
2-17 years 3.4-8.6 U/L


≥ 18 year olds ≤ 8.1 U/L
Aldosterone, serumALDT ≥ 18 year olds:
Upright 8:00-10:00 am ≤ 28 ng/dL
Upright 4:00-6:00 pm ≤ 21 ng/dL
Supine 8:00-10:00 am 3-16 ng/dL


Pediatric:
1-12 months 2-70 ng/dL
1-4 years 2-37 ng/dL
5-9 years ≤ 9 ng/dL
10-13 years ≤ 21 ng/dL
14-17 years ≤ 35 ng/dL


Premature infants (31-35 weeks) ≤ 144 ng/dL


Term infants ≤ 217 ng/dL


Tanner Stages:
II-III Males 1-13 ng/dL
II-III Females 2-20 ng/dL
IV-V Males 3-14 ng/dL
IV-V Females 4-32 ng/dL
Aldosterone, urineALDU On a typical diet containing 100-300 mmol Sodium per day:
2-7 years ≤ 5.7 µg/d
8-11 years ≤ 10.2 µg/d
12-16 years ≤ 15.6 µg/d
≥ 18 year olds ≤ 2.3-21.0 µg/d


Post-fludrocortisone or IV saline suppression: < 5.0 µg/d
Alkaline PhosphataseALKP
Age Male Female
< 1 month 75-316 U/L 48 - 406 U/L
1 month - 11 months 82 - 383 U/L 124 - 341 U/L
1 - 4 years 110 - 302 U/L 60 - 321 U/L
5 - 9 years 110 - 341 U/L 118 - 360 U/L
10 - 11 years 103 - 373 U/L 103 - 373 U/L
12 - 13 years 83 - 382 U/L 83 - 382 U/L
14 - 15 years 67 - 372 U/L 67 - 372 U/L
16 - 18 years 47 - 171 U/L 45 - 171 U/L
≥18 years 31 - 95 U/L 31 - 95 U/L


Note:
1. Normal range for infants 0 to <1 year adopted from "Pediatric Reference Ranges", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 3
(p-Nitrophenylphosphate)
2. Normal range for children 1 to less than 16 years old adopted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
3. Normal range for children 16 to <18 years old adopted from "Pediatric Reference Ranges", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 3 (p-Nitrophenylphosphate)
4. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone-specificBSAP ≥ 18 year old males:
18-29 Years 8.4-29.3 µg/L
30-39 Years 7.7-21.3 µg/L
40-49 Years 7.0-18.3 µg/L
50-68 Years 7.6-14.9 µg/L


≥ 18 year old females:
18-29 Years 4.7-17.8 µg/L
30-39 Years 5.3-19.5 µg/L
40-49 Years 5.0-18.8 µg/L
50-76 Years 5.6-29.0 µg/L


Premenopausal (35-45 Years) 5.0-18.2 µg/L


Pediatrics:
Males
2-24 Months 25.4-124.0 µg/L
6-9 Years 41.0-134.6 µg/L
10-13 Years 43.8-177.4 µg/L
14-17 Years 13.7-128.0 µg/L


Females:
2-24 Months 25.4-124.0 µg/L
6-9 Years 41.0-134.6 µg/L
10-13 Years 24.2-154.2 µg/L
14-17 Years 10.5-75.2 µg/L
Alpha Subunit of Glycoprotein HormonesASUB
Males ≤ 0.6 ng/mL
Premenopausal females ≤ 1.5 ng/mL
Postmenopausal females 0.9-3.3 ng/mL
Pregnancy (1st & 2nd Trimest) 1.8-360 ng/mL
Hypothyroid patients ≤ 3.7 ng/mL

Alpha Thalassemia Gene MappingATHSBNegative
No alpha globin gene deletions detected.
No alpha globin gene triplication detected
Alpha Thalassemia mutationsATHLNegative. No alpha globin gene deletions detected.
Alpha Thalassemia point mutationsHBCSNo Mutation Detected
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin, PhenotypingATPN90% of Normals are MM
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin, clearanceA1AC
Clearance ≤ 27 mL/d
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin, random stoolA1AF≤ 54 mg/dL
Alpha-1-Antitrypsin, serumA1AT79-207 mg/dL
Alpha-Fetoprotein, CSFAFPCSF< 1.5 ng/mL

Reference range in newborns is not established.
Alpha-Fetoprotein, serumAFPT< 8.1 µg/L
Alpha-Galactosidase Activity, LeukocytesAGA> 23 nmol/h/mg protein
Alpha-fetoprotein, amniotic fluid (with reflex to Acetylcholinesterase and Hgb F)AFPX
MOM < 2.00
Acetylcholinesterase Neg
Fetal Hemoglobin Neg
Alternative Pathway ActivityMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)77-159 Units/mL
Aluminum, plasmaALUM
Non-dialysis patient ≤ 7 µg/L
Dialysis patient < 40 µg/L
AmikacinAMIKP (Peak), AMIKT (trough), AMIKRN (random)
Peak 20.0 - 30.0 µg/mL
Trough < 8.0 µg/mL
Amino Acids, CSF, QuantitativeAACSF
Amino Acids, Urine, QuantitativeAAQUSee report
Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, RBCALAD
Normal >3.9 nmol/L/sec
Indeterminate 3.5-3.9 nmol/L/sec
Decreased <3.5 nmol/L/sec
AmiodaroneAMIO
Therapeutic for each 1.5-2.5 mg/L
Toxic:Amiodarone > 2.5 mg/L
Desethyl-amiodarone > 2.0 mg/L
AmitriptylineAMTR100-250 µg/L for sum of drug and metabolite
AmmoniaNH3
< 30 days < 50 µmol/L
≥ 30 days < 35 µmol/L


Note: Reference ranges determined by validating the assay manufacturer's reference range in 24 adult laboratory staff and by adapting the newborn reference range from method number 2 in Soldin et al. Pediatric Reference Intervals, 6th edition, 2007
Amphetamine Screen, UrineAMPUNegative

Note: a negative result indicates that this class of drugs is not present, or they are present at a concentration below the cut-off concentration of 1000 µg/L
Amphetamine confirmation, urineAMPCNot detected
Amylase, Body FluidAMYB
Amylase, Serum / PlasmaAMY
0 - 5 months 5 - 65 U/L
6 months - 2 years 12 - 113 U/L
3 years – 5 years 26 – 163 U/L
6 years - 11 years 27 - 113 U/L
12 years - 17 years 30 - 126 U/L
≥18 years 23 -144 U/L


Serum reference range established June 20, 2011 by testing samples from 120 male and female blood donors.
Pediatric reference ranges adapted from Tietz, Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, 5th ed., 2001 and from Clifford et al, Clinica Chimica Acta 412 (2011)788-790.
Amylase, random urineAMYUR< 650 U/L
Amylase, timed (2 hour) urineAMYU1-17 U/hour
Anaplasma phagocytophilium, Antibodies (IgG & IgM)ANAPL
IgG < 1:64 titer
IgM < 1:20 titer
Androstanediol Glucuronide, 3 alpha-AGLU
Prepubertal 10-60 ng/dL


Tanner Stages II-III:
Males 19-164 ng/mL
Females 33-244 ng/dL


≥ 18 year olds:
Males 260-1500 ng/dL
Females 60-300 ng/dL
AndrostenedioneASDN Pediatric:
1-12 months 6-78 ng/dL
1-4 years 5-51 ng/dL
5-9 years 6-115 ng/dL
10-13 years 12-221 ng/dL
14-17 years 22-225 ng/dL


Premature infants (31-35 weeks) ≤ 480 ng/dL
Term infants ≤ 290 ng/dL


Tanner Stages:
II-III Males 17-82 ng/dL
II-III Females 43-180 ng/dL
IV-V Males 57-150 ng/dL
IV-V Females 7-68 ng/dL


≥ 18 year old male:
18-30 years 50-220 ng/dL
31-50 years 40-190 ng/dL
51-60 years 50-220 ng/dL


≥ 18 year old female:
Follicular 35-250 ng/dL
Mid-cycle 60-285 ng/dL
Luteal 30-235 ng/dL
Postmenopausal 20-75 ng/dL
Aneuvysion FISHCYFDBNormal. See Additional Information
Aneuvysion FISH 13/21 (New test)A18XY
Aneuvysion FISH 18/XY (New test)A18XY
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, CSFACEC≤ 15 U/L
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, serumACE
Pediatric 6 mo-17 years 13-100 U/L
Adults 19-61 years 9-67 U/L
Anion Gap (Information only)4-14

Normal range was determined by testing 412 male and female healthy adult blood donors at UCSF.
Anti-Adrenal Antibody Screen (New test)ADRABNegative
Anti-Cardiolipin Antibody, IgAACLA
Normal < 10 APL U/mL
Equivocal 10-15 APL U/mL
Positive > 15 APL U/mL
Anti-Cardiolipin Antibody, IgGACLG
Normal < 15.0 GPL units
Equivocal 15.0-20.0 GPL units
Moderate positives 20.1-80.0 GPL units
High positives > 80.0 GPL units
Anti-Cardiolipin Antibody, IgMACLM
Normal < 12.5 MPL units
Equivocal 12.5-20.0 MPL units
Moderate positive 20.1-80.0 MPL units
High positive > 80.0 MPL units
Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibody (IgG)CYCP
Negative < 20 Units
Weak Positive 20.0-39.9 Units
Moderate Positive 40.0-59.9 Units
Strong Positive > 59.9 Units
Anti-IgAAIGA
Negative ≤ 52.0 Units
Positive > 52.0 Units
Anti-Mullerian HormoneAMH Females
<14 years 0.30-11.21 ng/mL
14-19 years Not established
20-29 years 0.65-16.40 ng/mL
30-39 years 0.16- 8.43 ng/mL
40-49 years < 5.20 ng/mL
> 49 years < 2.05 ng/mL


Males
< 1 year 101.90-262.00 ng/mL
1- 6 years 87.30-243.80 ng/mL
7-11 years 34.30-230.10 ng/mL
12-17 years < 135.45 ng/mL
> 17 years 1.45 - 15.27 ng/mL

Anti-Neutrophil Antibodies
Anti-Nuclear AntibodiesANANegative titer < 40
Anti-Phospholipid Antibody PanelAPLA
Anti-Streptolysin OASO≤ 200 IU/mL
Anti-phospholipid Syndrome Information
Antibodies to Extractable Nuclear AntigensAENA For both anti-SM and anti-SM/RNP:
Negative < 20 Units
Weak Positive 20-39 Units
Moderate Positive 40-80 Units
Strong Positive > 80 Units
Antidiuretic HormoneAVP
Antiduretic Hormone 1.0 - 13.3 pg/mL
Serum osmolality 283-301 mmol/kg
Antimicrobial Synergy StudyB043
Antiplasmin ActivityA2PI
Newborn ≥ 50%
≥ 18 year old 80-140%


30-36 wk premature infants may not reach
adult levels for up to 90 days of age
Antithrombin ActivityAT
Adults 79-120%


Neonatal normal ranges based on antithrombin activity are not available. We have included normal ranges below for neonates based on antigen levels which should roughly correlate with activity.

Neonates*:
Day 1 39-87%
Day 5 41-93%
Day 30 48-108%
Day 90 73-121%
Apt TestAPTAdult
Argatroban AssayARGATherapeutic anticoagulation: 0.5-2.0 µg/mL (mcg/mL)

Note: these values may not be applicable to intra-operative anticoagulation. See 'Additional information'
Array CGH, Family F/UPCGHNormal
Array CGH, constitutionalACGHCNormal
Array CGH, prenatalACGHPNormal
Arsenic, 24 hour urineASU< 81 µg/L (Varies w/diet)
Arsenic, bloodASB≤ 60 µg/L
Arsenic, random urineASUR
Non-exposed ≥ 18 year old ≤ 50 µg/g creatinine
Arylsulfatase AASUL> 2.4 U/L
Ascaris lumbricoides eggsP401
Ascaris lumbricoides larvaeP412
Ascaris lumbricoides wormP404
Ascorbic AcidASCA0.20-1.90 mg/dL
Aspartate transaminaseAST
0-7 days 24-100
8-30 days 20-72
1 month - 11 months 13-65
1 year - 5 years 18-63
≥ 6 years 17-42


Note:
1. Normal range for infants 0-1 year adapted from "Pediatric Reference Intervals", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 1.
2. Normal range for 1 to 6 year old children adapted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
3. Normal range for children >6 years adapted using adult normal ranges after comparison of Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345 and adult normal ranges.
4. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 270 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Aspergillus AntibodiesASPGNegative
Aspergillus CultureP259A
Avian Influenza AP319Negative
B-Cell Crossmatch by Cytotoxicity (For Donor)ILBXCD
B-Cell Crossmatch by Cytotoxicity (Recipient)ILBXCR
B-Cell Crossmatch by Cytotoxicity w/ DTT (Recipient)ILBXDT
B-Type Natriuretic PeptideBNP
Age Male Female
< 45 < 25 pg/mL < 48 pg/mL
45-54 < 40 pg/mL < 73 pg/mL
55-64 < 73 pg/mL < 82 pg/mL
65-74 < 64 pg/mL < 96 pg/mL
> 74 < 79 pg/mL < 181 pg/mL
B-cell Phenotyping Profile BCPH
B-tryptaseBTRPSee Additional Information
B. pertussis/parapertussis DNAP355Not Detected
BCR/ABL QuantitativeBCRABLNo bcr:abl transcripts (0%)
BCR/ABL translocation FISHTR922Not detected
BK virus, DNA, Quantitative, plasmaBKVNot detected
BK virus, DNA, Quantitative, urineBKVUNot detected
BRAF V600E Mutation testingNo mutation detected
BRCA MutationsMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)No Mutation Detected
Babesia microti Antibodies (IgG & IgM)BABES
Babesia Ab IgG < 1:64 titer
babesia Ab IgM < 1:20 titer
Bacterial Culture and Gram stain, CSFP076
Bacterial Culture and Gram stain, GenitalP070
Bacterial Culture and Gram stain, RespiratoryP063
Bacterial Culture and Gram stain, Wound, Superficial skinP080
Bacterial Culture, Non-sterile Site (excluding superficial skin) with Gram stain P082
Bacterial Culture, Normally Sterile Site, with Gram stain P095No growth
Bacterial Culture, StoolP166
Barbiturate confirmation, urineBARCNot detected
Barbiturates Screen, UrineBARBNegative

Note: a negative result indicates that this class of drugs is not present, or they are present at a concentration below the cutoff concentration of 200 µg/L
Bartonella species AntibodiesBART
Negative < 1:64 for IgG
Negative < 1:16 for IgM
Basic Metabolic Panel CBMPSee individual test entries
Beckwith-Wiedemann SyndromeMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)0.45-0.54
Benzodiazepine confirmation, urineBENCNot detected
Benzodiazepines Screen, UrineBENZNegative

Note: a negative result indicates that this class of drugs is not present, or they are present at a concentration below the cutoff concentration of 200 µg/L
Beta Amyloid 42/Tau Protein Analysis, CSF ABTAU
Beta Globin Gene DeletionsBDELNegative for deletions
Beta Thalassemia mutations (incl. HbS, HbC, HbE)BTHLNegative
Beta-2 Microglobulin, urineB2MU
Normal ≤ 132 µg/g creatinine
OSHA Industrial Reference range 300 µg/g creatinine
Beta-2-Microglobulin, serumB2MI< 2.35 mg/L
Beta-2-glycoprotein Antibody, IgAB2GA≤ 20 SAU
Beta-2-glycoprotein Antibody, IgGB2GPG< 21 SGU
Beta-2-glycoprotein Antibody, IgMB2GPM< 21 SMU
Beta-D-glucanBDGLU< 60 pg/mL
Beta-HydroxybutyrateBHOB0.02 - 0.27 mmol/L
Beta-globin DNA SequencingBGSQNegative
Bile Acids, Total BILETFasting sample 0 - 10 µmol/L
Bilirubin, DirectBILD
< 1 week <0.9 mg/dL
≥ 1 week <0.3 mg/dL


Note:
1. Normal range for neonates 0-1 week adopted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
2. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF. Adult range adopted for pediatric patients >1 week.
Bilirubin, TotalBILT0.2-1.3 mg/dL

Normal range was determined by testing 268 male and female healthy adult blood donors at UCSF.
Bilirubin, Total, Body FluidBILTBF
Biopterin (Newborn Screening follow-up only)
BiotinidaseBIOTI3.3-8.7 nmol/min/mL
Blastomycosis AntibodyBLASNegative
Blood Gas Panel Information
Blood Gases
Parnassus (NCPL) NGAS
Mount Zion ORBG
Analyte Ages Arterial Venous
pH All 7.35-7.45 7.31-7.41
pCO2 < 1 year 27-41 mmHg 41-51 mmHg
pCO2 ≥ 1 year 32-48 mmHg 41-51 mmHg
pO2 < 30 days 80-100 mmHg 35-40 mmHg
pO2 ≥ 30 days 83-108 mmHg 35-40 mmHg
HCO3- All 22-27 mmol/L
Base Excess (BE) All -2 to 2
Oxygen saturation (SaO2) All 95-99%
Blood Smear Morphology MORPNormal
Blood Smear PreparationSLID
Body Surface AreaBSA
Bone Marrow Collection and Examination
Bone Marrow StorageBMST
Bordetella pertussis Antibody (IgG/IgA)BPAB
PT IgG < 45 IU/mL
PT IgA < 10 IU/mL
FHA IgG < 90 IU/mL
FHA IgA < 50 IU/mL
Borrelia burgdorferi, infected tickNegative
Botulism Toxin, Adults and Children > 12 months oldP319Negative
Botulism Toxin, Children < 12 months oldP319Negative
Brilliant Cresyl Blue StainBCBNegative
Brucella antibodies (IgG, IgM)BRUCI < 0.80 U

Interpretive criteria:
Negative < 0.80 U
Equivocal 0.80-1.09 U
Positive ≥ 1.10 U
Bullous pemphigoid AntibodiesBPPAB< 9.0 U
Buprenorphine, urine BUPU< 5 ng/mL
BupropionBUPR25-100 ng/mL
Burkholderia pseudomallei Antibodies (IgG & IgM)MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Negative IgG < 64 titer
Negative IgM < 40 titer
Busulfan Pharmacokinetics, Adult (Non-Research) BUSUA, BUSAR2, BUSAR3, BUSAR4
Area Under the Curve 900-1500 µmol*min
Steady state concentration (Css) 600-900 ng/mL
Busulfan Pharmacokinetics, Pediatric (Non-Research) BUSUP, BUSRP2, BUSRP3, BUSRP4, BUSRP5, BUSRP6
Area Under the Curve 900-1350 µmol*min
Steady state concentration (Css) 600-900 ng/mL
C-Reactive ProteinCRP< 6.3 mg/L
C-Reactive protein, Highly SensitiveCRPH
Tertile CRP mg/L Cardiovascular Risk
1 < 1.0 Low
2 1.0-3.0 Moderate
3 > 3.0 High
C-telopeptideCTX Pediatric:
Age Males Females
5-9 years 574-1849 pg/mL 574-1849 pg/mL
10-13 years 519-2415 pg/mL 519-2415 pg/mL
14-17 years 435-2924 pg/mL 242-1291 pg/mL


Adult:
Age Males Females
18-29 years 87-1200 pg/mL 64-640 pg/mL
30-39 years 70-780 pg/mL 60-650 pg/mL
40-49 years 60-700 pg/mL 40-465 pg/mL
50-68 years 87-345 pg/mL Not available

C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency PanelC1EI C1EI activity (by decay of C1r):
Normal > 67%
Equivocal 41-67%
Abnormal < 41%


C1EI quantitation 11-26 mg/dL
C1q quantitation 5.0-8.6 mg/dL
C9ORF72 Repeat Expansion ALSC9Negative for the hexanucleotide repeat expansion (1-30 repeats)
CD3 dose estimationCD3DNot applicable
CEBPA MutationCEBPANegative for mutation
CSF Fungal Culture for CoccidiodesP256NNo Coccidiodes isolated
CSF IgG Synthesis Rate
CYP2C19 Genotype 2C19G
CadmiumCADM
Non-smokers < 1.7 µg/L
≥ 18 year old smokers < 5.0 µg/L OSHA reference range < 5.0 µg/L Potentially toxic 30 µg/L
CaffeineCAFF
Therapeutic 8-20 mg/L Potentially Toxic > 50 mg/L
CalcitoninCATN
≥ 18 year old males ≤ 10 pg/mL
≥ 18 year old females ≤ 5 pg/mL


Pediatrics (Males and Females):
< 6 months ≤ 41 pg/mL
6 months-3 years ≤ 14 pg/mL
3-17 years ≤ 6 pg/mL
Calcitonin Stimulation TestCATN x mult Normal response:
Pentagastrin alone Male Female
1 or 2 min ≤ 106 pg/mL ≤ 29 pg/mL
at 5 min ≤ 106 pg/mL ≤ 23 pg/mL


Ca++ & Pentagastrin Male Female
at 1 min ≤ 324 pg/mL ≤ 41 pg/mL
at 2 min 10-491 pg/mL ≤ 70 pg/mL
at 5 min 8-343 pg/mL ≤ 39 pg/mL
at 10 min ≤ 112 pg/mL ≤ 23 pg/mL
Calcium, Ionized, Serum / PlasmaCAI
0-1 month 1.00-1.50 mmol/L
1-6 months 0.95-1.50 mmol/L
≥ 6 months 1.16-1.36 mmol/L
Calcium, Ionized, post-filterPCAI
Calcium, Ionized, whole blood (MtZ Only)CAIB
< 6 months 0.95-1.50 mmol/L
≥ 6 months 1.15-1.29 mmol/L
Calcium, total, 24 hour urineCAUUsually 100-300 mg/D
Calcium, total, Serum / PlasmaCA
< 1 year 9.0-10.9 mg/dL
≥ 1 year 8.8-10.3 mg/dL


Note:
1. Normal range for children 0-1 year adopted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
2. Normal range for adults used for children >1 year. Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345 for 1-3 year olds and Tietz', "Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry" 5th ed, 2001, for 2-12 year olds showed reference intervals comparable to adult range.
3. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 270 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Calcium, total, random urineCAUR
Calprotectin, fecalCPRN≤ 162.9 µg/g
Calreticulin, Exon 9 Mutation Analysis (New test)CALRNegative
Cancer Antigen 125C125< 36 U/mL in females. Not established in males, See Additional Information
Cancer Antigen 15-3CA15< 33 U/mL
Cancer Antigen 19-9CA19< 36 U/mL
Cancer Antigen 27.29 CA2729< 38 U/mL
Cannabinoids confirmation, urineTHCCNot detected
CarbamazepineCZP
Therapeutic 4-12 mg/L


Source: Carbamazepine: Drug information copyright 1978-2012, Lexicomp, Inc. Accessed at UpToDate www.uptodate.com August 2012.
Carbohydrate deficient transferrin, for Alcohol AbuseCDTA0.00-0.10
Carbohydrate deficient transferrin, for Metabolic errorsCDT Congenital disorders of glycosylation:
Mono-oligosaccharide/Di-oligosaccharide ≤ 0.10
A-oligosaccharide/Di-oligosaccharide ≤ 0.05
Carbon Dioxide, TotalCO2AN
0 - 15 years 16 – 30 mmol/L
≥ 16 years 22 – 32 mmol/L


1. Normal range for 0 to 15 year old children adapted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
2. Normal range for >18y adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF. Adult range adapted for children 16-18 years
Carcinoembryonic AntigenCEA< 3.8 µg/L
Carcinoembryonic Antigen, Pancreatic cyst fluidCEAP
Carnitine, plasmaCARN
Total carnitine 20-71 µmole/L
Free carnitine 18-69 µmole/L
Acyl/Free ratio 0.1-0.4
Carnitine, urineUCARN
Free Carnitine, Urine 10-270 nmol/mg Cr
Total Carnitine, Urine 75-500 nmol/mg Cr
Acyl/Free Carnitine Ratio, Urine 0.5-5.0 ratio
CaroteneCARO
PEDIATRIC 9 mo-6 years < 48 µg/dL 7-17 years < 95 µg/dL


≥ 18 year old Males 4-51 µg/dL Females 6-77 µg/dL
Catecholamines, Fractionated, 24-hour UrineUCAF Epinephrine
3-8 years 1-7 µg/d
9-12 years ≤ 8 µg/d
13-17 years ≤ 11 µg/d
> 17 years 2-24 µg/d


Norepinephrine
3-8 years 5-41 µg/d
9-12 years 5-50 µg/d
13-17 years 12-88 µg/d
> 17 years 15-100 µg/d


Dopamine
3-8 years 80-378 µg/d
9-12 years 51-474 µg/d
13-17 years 51-645 µg/d
> 17 years 52-480 µg/d

Total Nor + Ep
3-8 years 9-51 µg/d
9-12 years 9-71 µg/d
13-17 years 13-90 µg/d
> 17 years 26-121 µg/d
Catecholamines, Fractionated, random urineUCAFR
Cell Count and Differential, body fluidCCDB
Cell Count and Differential, CSFCCDC
Appearance Clear
Xanthochromia Negative
WBC < 6 x106/L
RBC None
Neutrophils None
Central Blood Culture P061No growth
Ceroid Lipofucinosis
CeruloplasminCERU19-68 mg/dL
Chimerism Testing – CD14/15 Cell SubsetILNH14
Chimerism Testing – CD19 Cell Subset ILNH19
Chimerism Testing – CD3 Cell SubsetILNH3
Chimerism Testing – CD33 Cell Subset ILNH33
Chimerism Testing – CD34 Cell SubsetILNH34
Chimerism Testing – CD56 Cell SubsetILNH56
Chimerism Testing – CD71 Cell SubsetILNH71
Chimerism Testing – Granulocyte Cells Subset ILNHGR
Chimerism Testing – Informatives (Recipient and Donor)ILNH1
Chimerism Testing – Whole Blood or Bone MarrowILNH2
Chlamydia Antibody (MIF)CPNI (C. pneumoniae (TWAR)), CTRI (C. tranchomatis), CPSI (C. psittaci)
Antibody Negative Titer
IgG <1:64
IgA <1:16
IgM <1:10
Chlamydia CultureP699No Chlamydia isolated
Chlamydia trachomatis / Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA P703
Chlamydia Not detected
N. gonorrhoeae Noi detected
ChloramphenicolMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Therapeutic peak 10-25 mg/L
Chloride, 24 hour urineCLUUsually 50-250 mmol/D
Chloride, Body FluidCLB
Chloride, Serum / PlasmaCL
0-17 years 97-108 mmol/L
≥ 18 years 97-108 mmol/L


1. Normal range for >18y adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
2. Pediatric range same as adults as referenced in Soldin, "Pediatric Reference Intervals" 6th ed. 2007, Methods 1,2,3.
Chloride, random urineCLUR
Chloride, stoolCLST
Chloride, sweatSWCL For infants up to and including 6 months of age:
CF unlikely < 30 mmol/L,
Intermediate 30-59 mmol/L,
Indicative of CF ≥ 60 mmol/L.


For individuals older than 6 months of age:
CF unlikely < 40 mmol/L,
Intermediate 40-59 mmol/L,
Indicative of CF ≥ 60 mmol/L.


Reference ranges adopted from:
Farrell PM, et al. Guidelines for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in newborns through older adults: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation consensus report. J Pediatr 2008;153:S4-S14
Cholesterol Testing & CHD Risk
Cholesterol, HDLHDL HDL Cholesterol:
Acceptable > 39 mg/dL
Higher risk < 40 mg/dL
Lower risk > 59 mg/dL
Cholesterol, LDLLDL Total Cholesterol

Children and Adolescents (< 20 y/o):
Acceptable < 170 mg/dL
Borderline 170-199 mg/dL
High > 199 mg/dL


Adults (≥ 20 y/o):
Desirable < 200 mg/dL
Borderline 200-239 mg/dL
High > 239 mg/dL


HDL Cholesterol:

Acceptable > 39 mg/dL
Higher risk < 40 mg/dL
Lower risk > 59 mg/dL


LDL cholesterol

Children and Adolescents (< 20 y/o):
Acceptable < 110 mg/dL
Borderline high 110-129 mg/dL
High > 129 mg/dL


Adults: (≥ 20 y/o):
Optimal < 100 mg/dL
Near or above optimal 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high-risk 130-159 mg/dL
High-risk 160-189 mg/dL
Very high-risk > 189 mg/dL


Total Cholesterol:HDL Cholesterol ratio:

Desirable < 6.0


Non-HDL Cholesterol values for adults (> 19 y/o):

Optimal < 130 mg/dL
Near or above optimal < 160 mg/dL
Borderline high-risk 160-189 mg/dL
High-risk > 189 mg/dL
Very high-risk > 219 mg/dL


Triglycerides:

Desirable < 150 mg/dL
Borderline high 150-199 mg/dL
High 200-499 mg/dL
Very high ≥ 500 mg/dL


Risk classification is according to NCEP-ATPIII guidelines (JAMA 2001;285:2486)
Cholesterol, TotalCHOL Children and Adolescents (< 20 y/o):
Acceptable < 170 mg/dL
Borderline 170-199 mg/dL
High > 199 mg/dL


Adults (≥ 20 y/o):
Desirable < 200 mg/dL
Borderline 200-239 mg/dL
High > 239 mg/dL
Cholesterol, VLDL
Cholinesterase - Genetic variantsCGV Cholinesterase, serum:
Male 3342-7586 IU/L
Female 2673-6592 IU/L


Dibucaine number 81.6-88.3% Inhibition

Cholinesterase, RBC and PlasmaCPR
RBC Cholinesterase 9572-15031 IU/L Plasma cholinesterase:
Male 3334-7031 IU/L
Female 2504-6297 IU/L
Chromium, 24 hour urineMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)≤ 2 µg/L
Chromium, plasmaCHRO≤ 3.5 µg/L
Chromium, random urineCHROR
Chromium <2.0 ng/mL
Chromium:Creatinine ratio <5
Chromogranin ACGA1.9-15.0 ng/mL
Chromosome Analysis, Amniotic Fluid (includes Alpha-fetoprotein, amniotic fluid)CYAFB46,XY normal male
46,XX normal female
Chromosome Analysis, Blood, High ResolutionCYHR46,XY normal male
46,XX normal female
Chromosome Analysis, Chorionic VilliCYCV46,XY normal male
46,XX normal female
Chromosome Analysis, Tissue (Reactivated)CYTIS46,XY normal male
46,XX normal female
Chromosome Analysis; Pediatric LeukemiaLCYT
Chromosome analysis, Adult LeukemiaCYTLL
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia FISH Panel CYCLL
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, IgVH Mutation StatusIGVHM
CimetidineMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)0.5-2.5 mg/L
Citrate, 24 hour urineCITU100-1300 mg/d
Citrate, random urineCITUR Pediatric:
< 1 month NOT ESTABLISHED
1-11 months 235 – 4069 mg/g creatinine
1 – 9 years 11 – 1136 mg/g creatinine
10 – 17 years 55 – 845 mg/g creatinine


≥ 18 year olds:
Females 125-900 mg/g creatinine
Males 65-650 mg/g creatinine

Citrate, serumMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)1.7-3.0 mg/dL (85-156 µmol/L)
ClomipramineCLMP
Clomipramine 50-250 µg/L
DM-clomipramine 150-350 µg/L
Total 200-600 µg/L
ClonazepamCLON
Therapeutic 30-60 µg/L
Potentially toxic > 70 µg/L.
ClonoSIGHT MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
ClorazepateNORDP0.1-2.0 ug/mL
Clostridium difficileP328Negative for C. difficile
ClozapineCLOZNorclozapine 25 - 400 µg/mL
Cobalt, bloodCOBL≤ 1.8 µg/L
Cocaine Screen, UrineCOCUNegative

Note: a negative result indicates that cocaine metabolite is not present, or it is present at a concentration below the cutoff concentration of 300 µg/L
Cocaine metabolite confirmation, urineCOCACNot detected
Coccidia examP407Negative
Coccidioides immitis Antibody, Complement fixationCOCFNegative
Coccidioides immitis Antibody, Immunodiffusion, serumCOCCNegative
Cold AgglutininsCAGGNegative titer < 20
Colorado Tick Fever Antibodies (IgG & IgM)MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Negative IgG < 16 titer
Negative IgM < 20 titer
Complement C3, serumC371-159 mg/dL
Complement C4, serumC413-30 mg/dL
Complement, Total, serumCH5022-40 CH50 units/mL
Complete Blood Count (includes Platelet Count)CBCClick on links below for normal value information.

White cell count

Red cell count

Hemoglobin

Hematocrit

Red cell indices

Platelet count

White cell differential
Complete Blood Count with 5-part DifferentialCBCDClick on links below for normal value information.

White cell count

Red cell count

Hemoglobin

Hematocrit

Red cell indices

Platelet count

White cell differential
Comprehensive Metabolic PanelCMPSee individual test entries
Connexin 30CNXN30
Convalescent Serum
Coombs, Direct, PolyspecificDCTNegative
Coombs, IndirectICTNegative
CooximetryCOOX
Hemoglobin see Hemoglobin entry
Oxyhemoglobin 93-100%
Carboxyhemoglobin 0.5-1.5%
Methemoglobin 0.0-1.5%
Oxygen saturation 95-99%
Art. O2 content: 16-22 vol%
A-V DO2 3.5-5 vol%
A-a DO2 varies with FiO2
Copper, 24 hour urineCOPU15-60 µg/24 hours
Copper, plasmaCOP
0-2 years 12-67 µg/dL
3-10 years 27-153 µg/dL
Adult males 70-140 µg/dL
Adult females 85-155 µg/dL
Copper, random urineCOPUR Normals based on second void AM urine:

Males 6.4-14.3 µg/g creatinine
Females 6.7-18.6 µg/g creatinine
Copper, tissueCOPT10-35 µg/g dry weight of liver
Cortisol, Unconjugated, urineCRTF
< 1 year old Not established
1-4 years old 0.9-8.2 µg/24 hours
5-9 years old 1.0-30.0 µg/24 hours
10-13 years old 1.0-45.0 µg/24 hours
14-17 years old 3.0-55.0 µg/24 hours
≥ 18 years old 4.0-50.0 ug/24 hours
Cortisol, free, serum CRTFS
Adult:
8:00 A.M.-10:00 A.M. 0.07-0.93 µg/dL
4:00 P.M.-6:00 P.M. 0.04-0.45 µg/dL
10:00 P.M.-11:00 P.M. 0.04-0.35 µg/dL
Cortisol, serumCORT
AM (0700-0900 hours) 4-22 µg/dL
PM (1500-1700 hours) 3-17 µg/dL


Reference range adopted from vendor performed studies and verified by running lab personnel
CoumadinMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above) 1.0-10.0 ug/mL
Toxic > 10.0 ug/mL
Coxiella burnetii Antibodies, IgG & IgMQFEVNegative titer < 16
Creatine kinase - MB fractionMBMU0-6 µg/L
Creatine kinase, totalCK Male:
0-4 years 41-277 U/L
5-9 years 54-269 U/L
10-14 years 38-255 U/L
≥ 15 years 50-388 U/L


Female:
0-4 years 34-204 U/L
5-9 years 44-189 U/L
10-14 years 28-170 U/L
≥ 15 years 37-241 U/L


1. Normal range for 1 to 15 year old children adapted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
2. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 270 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF. Adult range adopted for children 15-18 years.
Creatine, serumCRTE≤ 1.0 mg/dL
Creatine, urine CRTU
Males < 0.15 g/24 hours
Females < 0.25 g/24 hours
Creatinine ClearanceCRCL
Age Male and Female
0-7 days 17-60 mL/min/1.73 m2
8-30 days 26-68 mL/min/1.73 m2
1-2 months 30-86 mL/min/1.73 m2
3-5 months 39-114 mL/min/1.73 m2
6-11 months 49-157 mL/min/1.73 m2
12-23 months 62-191 mL/min/1.73 m2
2-12 years 89-165 mL/min/1.73 m2


Age Male Female
13-29 years 88-146 mL/min/1.73 m2 81-134 mL/min/1.73 m2
30-39 years 82-140 mL/min/1.73 m2 75-128 mL/min/1.73 m2
40-49 years 75-133 mL/min/1.73 m2 69-122 mL/min/1.73 m2
50-59 years 68-126 mL/min/1.73 m2 64-116 mL/min/1.73 m2
60-69 years 61-120 mL/min/1.73 m2 58-110 mL/min/1.73 m2
≥70 years 55-113 mL/min/1.73 m2 52-105 mL/min/1.73 m2


Pediatric reference ranges from Holliday, Malcolm A; Barratt, T. Martin and Vernier, Robert L. Pediatric Nephrology, 2nd edition Williams & Wilkins and Edelmann, Chester M. Jr. Pediatric Kidney Disease vol 1, Little Brown & Company, Boston MA. Adult reference ranges from Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry 2nd edition,W.B. Saunders Company
Creatinine, 24 hour (or timed) urineCRU Age (years):
< 1 8-20 mg/kg/D
1-11 8-22 mg/kg/D
12-15 8-30 mg/kg/D
Male 16-89 years 14-26 mg/kg/D
Female 16-89 years 11-20 mg/kg/D
> 90 years > 9 mg/kg/D
Creatinine, Body FluidCRBNone established. If urine leakage into a body cavity has occurred, the concentration of creatinine in the body fluid may be within the concentration range of creatinine found in urine. Random urine creatinine concentrations are typically between 80 mg/dL to 150 mg/dL and can range from approximately 20 mg/dL to 300 mg/dL (see Barr, DB et al. Environmental Health Perspectives 113:192-200, 2005).
Creatinine, Serum / PlasmaCRG Creatinine:
Age Male Female
< 1 year 0.30-0.70 mg/dL 0.30-0.70 mg/dL
1-18 years 0.30-0.90 mg/dL 0.30-0.90 mg/dL
≥ 19 years 0.71-1.22 mg/dL 0.52-1.06 mg/dL


eGFR:
≥ 18 years > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2
< 18 years Not calculated (See Addtl. Info.)


1. Pediatric reference ranges adapted from Beckman's published "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems, Bulletin 9345.
2. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 270 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Creatinine, random urineCRURSee Additional Information
CrossmatchXM-Standard
XMAG-w/ Coombs
XMPW-w/ prewarming to 37C
XMPG-w/ Ployethylene Glycol (PEG)
See Additional Information
CryofibrinogenCRYFNegative
CryoglobulinCRYQ< 0.12 g/L
Cryoprecipitate Factor 8 ActivityCRFABrought from Blood Centers of the Pacific
Cryopreservation of cellsCYTOFZ
Cryptococcal antigenP253Negative
Cryptosporidum parvumP407Negative
Crystals, duodenal fluid or bileCBDNegative
Crystals, synovial fluidCJFNegative
Cutaneous AntibodiesNo test code, see Processing instructionsNegative titer < 1:10
CyanideCYAN
Normal < 0.1 mg/L
Potentially toxic > 0.5 mg/L
CyclosporaP407Negative
Cyclosporine ACYCL
Therapeutic trough 50-500 µg/L
Cystatin C CYSTC
Cystatin C 0.50-1.00 mg/L
eGFR (cys) ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m2
Cystic Fibrosis CBAVD Poly T MutationPOLT5T allele not detected
Cystic Fibrosis, Full CFTR gene sequencing MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)No mutation detected
Cystic Fibrosis, common mutationsMCFMNo mutation detected
Cysticercosis AntibodyTSABS< 0.90
Cysticercosis Antibody, CSF (IgG)TSCSFNegative
Cystine, Quantitative, 24 hour urineCUQNT
0-9 years 6-48 µmol/24 hours
10-13 years 10-94 µmol/24 hours
14-17 years 17-102 µmol/24 hours
> 17 years 24-184 µmol/24 hours
Cystine, Quantitative, random urineCUQT
0-30 days 24.0-75.5 mmol/mol creatinine
1-23 months 7.7-80.2 mmol/mol creatinine
2-18 years. 2.8-14.1 mmol/mol creatinine
≥ 18 years. 4.9-23.7 mmol/mol creatinine
Cytochrome P450 2D6MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Wildtype *1/*1
Cytomegalovirus Antibody, IgMCMVIGMNegative
Cytomegalovirus DNA, QuantitativeCMVQTNot detected
Cytomegalovirus DNA, Quantitative, Non-blood samplesCMVMISNot detected
Cytomegalovirus GenotypingCMVAVR
Cytomegalovirus antibody, IgGCMVABNegative
Cytomegalovirus cultureP320Negative
Cytotoxicity Antibody ScreenILCAS
D-Xylose Absorption, serumXYL1
< 6 years >14.9 mg/dL
≥ 6 years >19.9 mg/dL
D-Xylose Absorption, urineMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
≥ 18 year old > 4.0 g excreted in 5 hours after a 25 g dose
≥ 18 year old > 1.2 g after a 5g dose
Child 16-33% of the ingested dose
DNA Extraction and HoldDNAX
DNA Preparation & StorageILCPP
DNAase B AntibodyADAB<187 U/mL
DehydroepiandrosteroneDHEA
1-5 years <68 ng/dL
6-7 years <111 ng/dL
8-10 years <186 ng/dL
11-12 years <202 ng/dL
13-14 years <319 ng/dL
15-16 years 39-481 ng/dL
17-19 years 40-491 ng/dL
20-50 years 31-701 ng/dL
Dehydroepiandrosterone SulfateDHES
Age Males Females
18-29 years 110-510 ug/dL 45-320 ug/dL
30-39 years 110-370 ug/dL 40-325 ug/dL
40-49 years 45-345 ug/dL 25-220 ug/dL
50-59 years 25-240 ug/dL 15-170 µg/dL
60-69 years < 186 ug/dL < 186 ug/dL
70-90 years < 76 µg/dL < 90 µg/dL


Note: the reference ranges have been adopted from Quest Diagnostics-San Juan Capistrano based on correlation studies and same methodology.
Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate, PediatricPDHES Premature Infants
26-28 weeks, day 4 123-882
31-35 weeks, day 4 122-710


Full Term Infants
3 days 88-356
1-12 months 5-111 by first month
5-48 by six months


Prepubertal
1-5 years < 5-57
6-7 years 9-72
8-10 years 13-115


Tanner Stage Males Females
I 13-83 19-144
II 42-109 32-129
III 48-200 32-226
IV 102-385 58-260
V 120-370 44-248
Deletion 11Q ATM FISHDEL11QAbsent
Deletion 13Q FISH DEL13QAbsent
Deletion 17P FISH DEL17PAbsent
Deletion 20q FISHDEL20QNo deletion detected
Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Quantitative, 24 hour urineALAQ< 4.5 mg/24 h
Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Quantitative, random urineALAQR Pediatric:
1 - 8 years 2.3-6.2 mg/g creat
9 - 17 years 1.5-5.3 mg/g creat


≥ 18 years:
Females <5.4 mg/g creat
Males <1.8 mg/g creat

Dengue Antibodies, IgG & IgMDENGF
IgG <0.90
IgM <0.90
DeoxycorticosteroneDOC
Cord blood 111-372 ng/dL
1 wk-12 months 7-49 ng/dL
Pre-pubertal child (1-10 y/o) 2-34 ng/dL
≥ 18 year olds [0800 hours] 2-19 ng/dL
Deoxycortisol, 11-, specificCSPE
Cord blood 295-554 ng/dL Premature infants 48-579 ng/dL
Full-term infants-3 days 13-147 ng/dL
1-12 months < 156 ng/dL
Pre-pubertal child (1-10 y/o) [0800 hours] 20-155 ng/dL
≥ 18 year olds [0800 hours] 12-158 ng/dL

Desipramine DESI
Therapeutic 50-300 µg/L when given as parent drug
Desmoglein 1 and 3 AntibodiesDSG DESMOGLEIN 1
Negative <14.0 U
Indeterminate 14.0-20.0 U
Positive >20.0 U


DESMOGLEIN 3
Negative <9.0 U
Indeterminate 9.0-20.0 U
Positive >20.0 U
Dexamethasone Suppression TestSee Additional Information
Dexamethasone Suppression Test, High-DoseSee Additional Information
Dexamethasone Suppression Test, Low-Dose See Additional Information
DiazepamMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Therapeutic: 0.1-2.5 mg/L for the SUM of the parent drug and its metabolite
Differential Time to PositivityP060 & P061No growth
DigitoxinDIGT
Therapeutic 10-30 ng/mL
Potentially toxic > 30 ng/mL
DigoxinDIGTherapeutic: 0.5-2.0 µg/L
DihydrotestosteroneDHT
Age Male Female
Cord Blood < 2-8 ng/dL < 2-8 ng/dL
Premature Infants 10-53 ng/dL 2-13 ng/dL
Full-term Newborns 5-60 ng/dL < 2-15 ng/dL
30-60 days 12-85 ng/dL < 3 ng/dL
7 months -Tanner Stage 1 < 3 ng/dL < 3 ng/dL
Tanner Stage 2 3-17 ng/dL 5-12 ng/dL
Tanner Stage 3 8-33 ng/dL 7-19 ng/dL
Tanner Stage 4 22-52 ng/dL 4-13 ng/dL
Tanner Stage 5 24-65 ng/dL 3-18 ng/dL
≥ 18 year old 30-85 ng/dL 4-22 ng/dL
Diphtheria AntitoxinDIPHProtective ≥ 0.01 IU/mL
Diphtheria CultureP126Negative
DisaccharidasesDSCS
Lactase 15.0-45.5 µM gluc/min/g prot
Maltase 25-69.9 µM gluc/min/g prot
Palatinase 100-224.4 µM gluc/min/g prot
Sucrase 5-26.3 µM gluc/min/g prot
DisopyramideDISOTherapeutic: 2-5 mg/L
Diuretic Screen and IdentificationDIUS
Donath Landsteiner MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Donor Infectious Disease Screen +NATPTXID
Double-Stranded DNA AntibodyADNA
Negative < 30 IU/mL
Equivocal 30-75 IU/mL
Positive >75 IU/mL
DoxepinDOXTherapeutic: 150-250 µg/L for SUM of Doxepin and Nordeoxepin
Drugs of Abuse ScreenABUSUNo compounds detected
Drugs of Abuse Screening Panel (In-house; Not for drug monitoring)DAUNegative

(Note: a negative result indicates that the specific class of drugs is not present, or is present at a concentration below that of the cut off concentration. See each drug class for specific concentration cut-offs).
Duplication 1Q FISH DUP1QAbsent
E. coli O157 cultureP157
EGFR Amplification by FISHRatio: 1.03 +/- 0.15
EWSR1 FISH
Echinococcus granulosa Antibody (IgG)ECHINONegative
Ectoparasite identificationP416
Ehrlichia chaffeensis Antibodies (IgG & IgM)EHRL
IgG < 1:64 titer
IgM < 1:20 titer
Electrolytes, serum or plasmaLYTE
Sodium 134-143 mmol/L
Potassium 0-2 weeks 4.0-6.0 mmol/L
Potassium > 2 weeks 3.4-4.9 mmol/L
Chloride 98-107 mmol/L
Total CO2 23-32 mmol/L
Entamoeba histolytica AntigenMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Not detected
Entamoeba histolytica antibody (IgG)AMOEBNegative
Not detected < 1.00
Detected ≥ 1.00
Enterovirus RNAP319Not Detected
Eosinophils, nasal smearEONNegative
Eosinophils, sputumEOSPNegative
Eosinophils, urineUEOSNegative
Epstein-Barr virus AntibodiesEBV
IgM anti-VCA Neg
Anti-EBNA Neg
Epstein-Barr virus Antibodies-IgA Anti-VCA onlyEBVCANegative titer < 10
Epstein-Barr virus DNA, Quantitative, blood EBVQTNot detected
Epstein-Barr virus DNA, Quantitative, non-blood samplesEBVMISNot detected
Erythrocyte PorphyrinERYP0-35 µg/dL
ErythropoietinERP Pediatric:
3 weeks-2 months 5.0-13.0 mIU/mL
3 months-16 years 9.0-28.0 mIU/mL
≥ 18 year olds 4.1-19.5 mIU/mL
Estradiol, UltrasensitiveE2P
Age Male Female 1-9 years ≤ 4 pg/mL ≤ 16 pg/mL
10-11 years ≤ 12 pg/mL ≤ 65 pg/mL
12-14 years ≤ 24 pg/mL ≤ 142 pg/mL
15-17 years ≤ 31 pg/mL ≤ 283 pg/mL


Adult males (> 17 years) ≤ 29 pg/mL

Adult females (>17 years)
Follicular Stage 39-375 pg/mL
Luteal Stage 48-440 pg/mL
Postmenopausal ≤ 10 pg/mL
Estrone, serumE1P Pediatric Females:
Prepubertal 1-9 years ≤ 34 pg/mL
10-11 years ≤ 72 pg/mL
12-14 years ≤ 75 pg/mL
15-17 years ≤ 188 pg/mL


Pediatric Males:
Prepubertal 1-9 years < 10 pg/mL
10-11 years ≤ 12 pg/mL
12-14 years ≤ 28 pg/mL
15-17 years ≤ 64 pg/mL


Post-pubertal Female:
Follicular Stage 10-138 pg/mL
Mid-cycle Stage 49-268 pg/mL
Luteal Stage 16-173 pg/mL


Post-Menopausal female ≤ 65 pg/mL


≥ 18 year old male ≤ 68 pg/mL


Ethanol, UrineALCONot detected
Ethanol, serum or plasmaALCNegative < 0.005 g/dL
EthosuximideETHO
Therapeutic 40-100 mg/L
Potentially toxic > 150 mg/L
EthotoinETHT
Therapeutic 8.0-20.0 mg/L Toxic > 60 mg/L
Ethyl glucuronide with confirmationEGESC
Ethyl glucuronide < 500 ng/mL
Ethyl sulfate < 100 ng/mL
Ethylene glycol (New test)ETG
EverolimusEVER
Therapeutic 3-8 ng/mL
Potentially toxic > 12 ng/mL


Note: this therapeutic range is based upon use of everolimus in adult patients to prevent rejection after receiving a kidney transplant. The therapeutic range for the use of everolimus in other indications has not yet been established and may vary from the range documented here.

Kovarik JM et al, Transplantation 2002; 73(6):920-925.
Kovarik JM et al, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 2004; 26(5):499-505.
McMillin GA et al, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 2012; 34:222-226.
Exome Sequencing, Family Trio (New test)EXOMT
Exome Sequencing, Parental Samples (New test)EXOMP
Exome Sequencing, Proband only (New test)EXOPB
FLT3 Mutations, QualitativeFLT3Negative
FTA-ABSFTACNonreactive
Factor 10 Activity, ChromogenicFXCH
Normal 73-158% activity
Therapeutic range for patients on coumadin 11-42%
Factor 10 Activity, RoutineF10
0-4 days 12-68%
5 days to 30 days 19-79%
1 month – 3 months 31-87%
3 months - 6 months 35-107%
6 months – 1 year 38-118%
1-5 years 58-116%
6-10 years 55-101%
11 – 17 years 50-117%
≥ 18 year old 71-143%


UCSF HAS NOT ESTABLISHED NORMAL REFERENCE RANGES FOR FACTOR LEVELS FOR CHILDREN <18 YEARS OLD. The table above gives age-adjusted reference ranges for Pediatric Factor 10 Levels as percentages. The values are expressed by the upper and lower boundary encompassing 95% of the population.

These values are based upon these references:
Andrew M. et al. Development of the Human Coagulation System in the Full Term Infant. Blood 1987 70:165
Andrew M, et al. Maturation of the Hemostatic System During Childhood. Blood October 1992, 80(8): 1998-2005

Values are converted from the original tables, which express values as units/ml. Original tables provide values for infants at 1 day, 5 days, 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days of age as well as for children 1-5 years, 6-10 years, and 11-16 years. The published tables have been converted to the reference range shown.
Factor 11 ActivityF11
Day 1 10-66%
Day 5 23-87%
Day 30 27-79%
Day 90 41-97%
Day 180 38-134%
≥ 18 year old 72-161%


Pediatric Reference (Day 1 – 180): Andrew, M et al. Development of the human coagulation system in the full-term infant. Blood. 70:165-72).
Factor 12 ActivityF12A Age
Newborn - Day 4 13-93%
Day 5 - 1 Month 11-83%
1 Month - 3 Months 17-81%
3 Months - 6 Months 25-109%
6 Months - 1 Year 39-115%
1 Year - 5 Years 64-129%
6 Years - 10 years 60-140%
11 Years - 16 Years 34-137%
≥ 17 Years 50-150%
Factor 13 ActivityF13A57-192%
Factor 2 ActivityF2
0-4 days 26-70%
5-30 days 33-93%
1-3 months 34-102%
3-6 months 45-105%
6 months – 1 year 60-116%
1-5 years 71-116%
6-10 years 67-107%
11-17 years 61-104%
≥ 18 years 81-127%


UCSF HAS NOT ESTABLISHED NORMAL REFERENCE RANGES FOR FACTOR LEVELS FOR CHILDREN <18 YEARS OLD. The table above gives age-adjusted reference ranges for Pediatric Factor 2 Levels as percentages. The values are expressed by the upper and lower boundary encompassing 95% of the population.

These values are based upon these references: Andrew M. et al. Development of the Human Coagulation System in the Full Term Infant. Blood 1987 70:165
Andrew M, et al. Maturation of the Hemostatic System During Childhood. Blood October 1992, 80(8): 1998-2005

Values are converted from the original tables, which express values as units/ml. Original tables provide values for infants at 1 day, 5 days, 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days of age as well as for children 1-5 years, 6-10 years, and 11-16 years. The published tables have been converted to the reference range shown.
Factor 5 ActivityF5
0-4 days 36-108%
5 days to 30 days 45-145%
1 month – 3 months 62-134%
3 months - 6 months 48-132%
6 months – 1 year 55-127%
1-5 years 79-127%
6-10 years 63-116%
11 – 17 years 55-99%
≥ 18 years 67-154%


UCSF HAS NOT ESTABLISHED NORMAL REFERENCE RANGES FOR FACTOR LEVELS FOR CHILDREN <18 YEARS OLD. The table above gives age-adjusted reference ranges for Pediatric Factor 5 Levels as percentages. The values are expressed by the upper and lower boundary encompassing 95% of the population.

These values are based upon these references:
Andrew M, et al. Maturation of the Hemostatic System During Childhood. Blood October 1992, 80(8): 1998-2005
Andrew M. et al. Development of the Human Coagulation System in the Full Term Infant. Blood 1987 70:165

Values are converted from the original tables, which express values as units/mL. Original tables provide values for infants at 1 day, 5 days, 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days of ages as well as for children 1-5 year, 6-10 years, and 11 - 16 years. The published tables have been converted to the reference range shown.
Factor 7 ActivityF7
0-4 days 28-104%
5 days to 30 days 35-143%
1 month – 3 months 42-138%
3 months - 6 months) 39-143%
6 months – 1 year 47-127%
1-5 years 55-116%
6-10 years 52-120%
11 – 17 years 58-115%
≥ 18 years 54-169%


UCSF HAS NOT ESTABLISHED NORMAL REFERENCE RANGES FOR FACTOR LEVELS FOR CHILDREN <18 YEARS OLD. The table above gives age-adjusted reference ranges for Pediatric Factor 7 Levels as percentages. The values are expressed by the upper and lower boundary encompassing 95% of the population.

These values are based upon these references:
Andrew M. et al. Development of the Human Coagulation System in the Full Term Infant. Blood 1987 70:165
Andrew M, et al. Maturation of the Hemostatic System During Childhood. Blood October 1992, 80(8): 1998-2005

Values are converted from the original tables, which express values as units/ml. Original tables provide values for infants at 1 day, 5 days, 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days of age as well as for children 1-5 years, 6-10 years, and 11-16 years. The published tables have been converted to the reference range shown.
Factor 8 ActivityF843-168%

Note: During infancy, Factor VIII values can be greater than those observed in adults. Nevertheless, a value of approximately 50% was noted as the lower limit of normal for full term infants from birth to 6 months. (Reference: Andrew M. et al. Blood 1987 70:165).
Factor 8 Activity, ChromogenicF8CH65-179% Avtivity
Factor 9 ActivityF9
0-4 days 15-91%
5 days to 30 days 15-91%
1 month – 3 months 21-81%
3 months - 6 months 21-113%
6 months – 1 year 36-136%
1-5 years 47-104%
6-10 years 63-89%
11 – 17 years 59-122%
≥ 18 years 60-160%


UCSF HAS NOT ESTABLISHED NORMAL REFERENCE RANGES FOR FACTOR LEVELS FOR CHILDREN <18 YEARS OLD. The table above gives age-adjusted reference ranges for Pediatric Factor 9 Levels as percentages. The values are expressed by the upper and lower boundary encompassing 95% of the population.

These values are based upon these references:
Andrew M. et al. Development of the Human Coagulation System in the Full Term Infant. Blood 1987 70:165
Andrew M, et al. Maturation of the Hemostatic System During Childhood. Blood October 1992, 80(8): 1998-2005

Values are converted from the original tables, which express values as units/ml. Original tables provide values for infants at 1 day, 5 days, 30 days, 90 days, and 180 days of age as well as for children 1-5 years, 6-10 years, and 11-16 years. The published tables have been converted to the reference range shown.
Factor Inhibitor TiterFIT<0.1 BU
Factor V (F5) Leiden MutationFVRNegative
Fanconi's Anemia with DEBFANC
Fatty Acids, NonesterifiedNEFA
Newborn 0-2.30 mmol/L
1-12 months 0.50-1.60 mmol/L 1-7 years 0.60-1.50 mmol/L 8-17 years 0.20-1.10 mmol/L ≥ 18 year old 0.09-0.82 mmol/L
Fatty Acids, Very Long Chain , Saturated plus Phytanic acidVLCF
Normal X-linked ALD hemizygote X-linked ALD Heterozygote Zellweger Syndrome
C26:0 µg/mL 0.24 (0.14) 1.30 (0.45) 0.68 (0.29) 3.93 (1.50)
C26:1 µg/mL 0.11 (0.04) 0.34 (0.16) 0.23 (0.10) 4.08 (2.30)
Phytanic acid µg/mL 0.54 (0.29) 0.57 (0.46) 0.45 (0.22) 0.40 (0.28)
Pristanic acid µg/mL 0.05 (0.04) 0.06 (0.06) 0.06 (0.03) 0.09 (0.16)
C22:0 µg/mL 29.76 (6.45) 18.50 (5.10) 19.41 (4.08) 8.66 (4.97)
C24:0 µg/mL 22.88 (4.88) 32.25 (8.20) 24.89 (5.42) 17.51 (8.64)
C22:1 (n-9) µg/mL 1.61 (0.45) 1.19 (0.66) 1.33 (0.41) 1.73 (0.65)
Erucic acid
C24/C22 µg/mL 0.78 (0.10) 1.71 (0.23) 1.30 (0.19) 2.07 (0.28)
C26/C22 µg/mL 0.01 (0.003) 0.07 (0.03) 0.04 (0.02) 0.50 (0.16)
Fc epsilon receptor antibodyCUI
Fecal Fat StainP408Neural fat not increased; Total fat not increased
Fecal Fat, QuantitativeFATF
Breast fed infant < 1
Child 0-6 years < 2
≥ 18 year old-normal diet < 7
≥ 18 year old-low-fat diet < 4
Fecal Occult Blood Test (FIT)FOBTNegative
Fecal White Blood Cell ExamP221Negative (No cells)
FelbamateFELB30-50 µg/mL
FerritinFERR
Males 22-322 µg/L
Females 10-291 µg/L


Reference ranges adopted from Quest Diagnostics based on split Pt. comparison testing using the same instrument/methodology (Siemens Centaur)
Fetal Bleed ScreenFBLDNegative
Fetal Cells, QuantitativeFETCSee Additional Information
Fetal FibronectinFFNNegative
Fetal Lung Maturity Panel (Lamellar Body Count & Phosphatidyl glycerol)LBCPGA LBC:
> 50 x 10e9/L Mature
15 - 50 x 10e9/L Transitional
< 15 x 10e9/L Immature


PG:
Present Mature
Fibrin D-DimersFDD<400 ng/mL
Fibrin MonomerFIBMNegative
Fibrinogen, AntigenicFIBAG180-350 mg/dL
Fibrinogen, FunctionalFIB202-430 mg/dL

Note:: Fibrinogen results may be inaccurate in patients who have recently received fibrinolytic therapy.
Fibrinogen/Fibrin Degradation ProductsFFDP< 5 mcg/mL
Filaria IgG4 AntibodyMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)< 1.00
First Trimester ScreenFTS
FlecainideFLEC
Therapeutic 0.20-1.00 mg/L
Toxic > 1.00 mg/L
Folate, RBCFOLR280-791 µg/L of RBC hemolysate

Reference range adopted from reagent manufacturer performed studies and verified by running normal samples collected from outpatients with a normal FBS, Hematocrit and MCV.
Follicle Stimulating HormoneFSH
Adult males (≥ 18 years) 0.6-14.7 IU/L

Adult females (≥ 18 years):
Follicular phase 2.5-10.2 IU/L
Mid-cycle peak 3.4-33.4 IU/L
Luteal phase 1.5-9.1 IU/L
Pregnant < 0.3 IU/L
Post-Menopausal 23.0-116.3 IU/L
Follicle Stimulating Hormone, PediatricPFSH
Males
0-9 years/prepubertal* < 3.00 mIU/mL
10-13 years/early prepubertal 0.30-4.00 mIU/mL
14-17 years 0.40-7.40 mIU/mL


Females
0-8 years/prepubertal* 0.50-4.50 mIU/mL
9-13 years/early prepubertal 0.40-6.50 mIU/mL
14-17 years 0.80-8.50 mIU/mL


*See Additional Information
FondaparinuxFONDASee additional information
Fragile XFRX Results are reported as "No Mutation Detected", "Pre-mutation Present" or "Full Mutation Present".

Number of CGG repeats is also reported.

Result CGG Repeats
Normal < 45
Intermediate 45-54
Premutation 55-200
Full mutation >200
Free Catecholamines, Fractionated, plasmaCATP Pediatric patient supine:
Children age 3-15 years:
Epinephrine ≤ 464 pg/mL
Norepinephrine ≤ 1251 pg/mL
Dopamine < 60 pg/mL

≥ 18 year olds patient supine:
Epinephrine < 50 pg/mL
Norepinephrine 112-658 pg/mL
Dopamine < 10 pg/mL
Total 123-671 pg/mL

≥ 18 year old patient upright (not recommended):
Epinephrine < 95 pg/mL
Norepinephrine 217-1109 pg/mL
Dopamine < 20 pg/mL
Total 242-1125 pg/mL


Pediatric normals from: J Chromatogr 1993 617:304-307
Free Kappa & Lambda light chains, urineFRULC
Free Sialic Acid, urineMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Free T3, AdultFT3
Adults (18 years and older) 2.6-5.7 pmol/L


For children, order test Free T3, Pediatric (code PFT3)

Adult reference ranges adopted from manufacturer reference range studies (95% CI) and verified in-house using blood donor (N=124) (excluding autologous donors) on no medications and negative for anti-Tg and TPO antibodies.
Free T3, PediatricPFT3
< 1 year Not Established
1-9 years 337-506 pg/dL
10-13 years 335-480 pg/dL
14-18 years 287-455 pg/dL
Free T4FT4
Age Male (pmol/L) Female (pmol/L)
1-3 days 10-36 11-25
4-30 days 6-30 8-25
1-12 months 10-26 11-24
1-5 years 11-21 12-19
6-10 years 11-19 11-19
>10 years 10-18 10-18


Pediatric reference ranges adopted from Pediatric Reference Intervals seventh edition (Soldin, Steven J. et al) and Canadian Laboratory Initiative on Reference Interval Database (CALIPER) Clin Biochem 2009;42:885-991

Adult 95% reference range from the manufacturer (personal communication, Abbott Labs) was verified by running 148 non-autologous donor samples from subjects on no medications and neg. for TgAb and TPO Ab
Free T4 (by dialysis)FT4D
Prematures, 25-30 weeks, first week of life 0.5-3.3 ng/dL
Prematures, 31-36 weeks, first week of life 1.3-4.7 ng/dL
Cord blood, > 37 weeks 1.2-2.2 ng/dL
Birth-4 days 2.2-5.3 ng/dL
2 weeks-2 years 0.8-2.0 ng/dL
3-20 years 1.0-2.4 ng/dL
21-87 yr 0.8-2.7 ng/dL


Pregnancy:
First trimester 0.9-2.0 ng/dL
Second trimester 0.8-1.5 ng/dL
Third trimester 0.8-1.7 ng/dL
FructosamineFRUT190-270 µmol/L
Fungal Culture, BloodP258
Fungal Culture, dermatophytes with KOHP257
Fungal Culture, other fungiP256No fungus isolated
Fungal Culture, yeastP259Y
GAD-65 AutoantibodiesGAD≤ 1.0 U/mL
GM-1 Antibodies, IgG and IgMGM1AB< 1:800
GT1b Antibodies, IgMMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Normal < 600
Elevated 600
Very High 1000
Galactomannan AntigenGMAN
Negative <0.5 Index
Positive ≥0.5 Index
GalactoseGALAC Age:
1-7 days <5.4 mg/dL
8-14 days <3.6 mg/dL
>14 days <2.0 mg/dL
Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyl Transferase, RBCG1PUT> 18.4 U/g Hgb
Galactose-1-Phosphate, RBCGAL1P
Non-galactosemic 5-49 mcg/g of hemoglobin (<1 mg/dL)
Galactosemic on galactose restricted diet 80-125 mcg/g of hemoglobin (1-4 mg/dL)
Galactosemic on unrestricted diet >125 mcg/g of hemoglobin (>4 mg/dL)

Gamma-Glutamyl TranspeptidaseGGT
Age Male Female
0 - 7 days 25-168 U/L 18-148 U/L
8 days - 30 days 23-174 U/L 16-140 U/L
1 month - 3 months 16-147 U/L 16-140 U/L
4 months - 6 months 5-93 U/L 13-123 U/L
7 months - 11 year 8-38 U/L 8-59 U/L
1 year - 4 years 2-15 U/L 2-15 U/L
5 years - 9 years 6-16 U/L 6-19 U/L
10 years - 17 years 7-26 U/L 8-23 U/L
≥ 18 years 10-69 U/L 7-37 U/L


1. Normal range for children 0 to <5 year adopted from Soldin, Steven J., "Pediatric Reference Ranges", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 4
2. Normal range for children 5 to less than 18 years old adopted from Beckman Coulter's
"Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
3. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Ganglioside AntibodiesMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Gastric Acidity, TitratableGAA
Free HCl output 0.0-40.0 mEq/L


Total (titratable) acidity 10.0-60.0 mEq/L


Basal acid output (BAO) is normally < 5 mmol/h and peak output 5-40 mmol/h.
Gastric Parietal Cell AntibodyGPCA
Negative ≤ 20.0 Units
Equivocal 20.1-24.9 Units
Positive ≥ 25.0 Units
GastrinGAST
< 5 years Not established
5-17 years 13-64 pg/mL
≥ 18 year old ≤ 100 pg/mL


Note: reference ranges apply to fasting samples only.
GentamicinGENPK (Peak), GENTH (Trough), GENRN (Random)
Therapeutic peak 5-10 mg/L


Trough levels:
Standard dosing < 2 mg/L (< 1 mg/L optimum)
Once daily, high dose < 1 mg/L (< 0.3 mg/L optimum)
ICN extended interval dosing < 2 mg/L (< 1.5 mg/L optimum)
CF extended interval dosing < 1 mg/L


Source of reference range: UCSF/SFGH/VASF joint guidelines for antimicrobial use in adults.

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Giardia AntigenP413Negative
Gliadin Antibodies (IgG and IgA)GLIA Gliadin antibody (IgG)
Negative < 20 Units
Weak Positive 20-30 Units
Positive > 30 Units


Gliadin Antibody (IgA)
Negative < 20 Units
Equivocal 20-30 Units
Positive > 30 Units
Glomerular Basement Membrane AntibodyAGBM
Negative < 3.0 EU/mL
Positive ≥ 3.0 EU/mL
GlucagonGLGN
Cord Blood ≤ 215 pg/mL
Day 1 ≤ 240 pg/mL
Day 2 ≤ 400 pg/mL
Day 3 ≤ 420 pg/mL
Days 4-14 ≤ 148 pg/mL
Adults ≤ 60 pg/mL
Glucose, 24 hour urineGLUU< 0.5 g/D
Glucose, Body fluidGLBF
Glucose, CSFGLC40-70 mg/dl
Glucose, fastingFBS
Normal 70-99 mg/dL
Impaired fasting glucose ("pre-diabetes") 100-125 mg/dL
Diabetes mellitus > 125 mg/dL
Glucose, non-fastingGLU Pediatrics:
< 1 month 55-115 mg/dL
1 month - 1 year 55-123 mg/dL
1 year - 17 years 56-145 mg/dL


Adults (≥ 18 years old):
Normal 70-199 mg/dL
Impaired glucose tolerance 140-199 mg/dL*
Diabetes mellitus > 199 mg/dL**


* If measured 2 hour postprandial
** AND Sx of diabetes such as polyuria, polydipsia or unexplained weight loss

1. Normal range for infants 0 to <1 month adapted from Soldin, Steven J., "Pediatric Reference Intervals", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 1.
2. Normal range for 1 month to <18 years adapted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
3. ADA guidelines used for adults.
Glucose, random urineGLURNegative
Glucose, whole bloodNGLU Pediatrics:
< 1 month 55-115 mg/dL
1 month - 1 year 55-123 mg/dL
1 year - 17 years 56-145 mg/dL


Adults (≥ 18 years old):
Normal 70-199 mg/dL
Impaired glucose tolerance 140-199 mg/dL*
Diabetes mellitus > 199 mg/dL**


* measured 2 hour postprandial
** AND Sx of diabetes such as polyuria, polydipsia or unexplained weight loss

1. Normal range for infants 0 to <1 month adapted from Soldin, Steven J., "Pediatric Reference Intervals", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 1.
2. Normal range for 1 month to <18 years adapted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
3. ADA guidelines used for adults.
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Screen, RBC, quantitativeG6PD4.6-13.5 U/g Hgb
Glycine, CSF:Plasma ratioCSF/plasma ratio: 0.02-0.05
Gram StainP057
Growth HormoneGH
Adult males < 3.1 µg/L
Adult females < 8.1 µg/L


Reference range was adopted from Siemens Immulite 2000 vendor performed studies and verified in-house by running adult donor samples (excluding autologous donors) on 20 male and 20 female samples.

Pediatric reference ranges are not available for this immunoassay platform.

For children, order Growth Hormone, Ultrasensitive (test code PGHB)
Growth Hormone, PediatricPGHB
Age
1-2 days 5-53 ng/mL
2-7 days 5-27 ng/mL
31 days-11 months 2-10 ng/mL
Post-overnight fast
Children 0-6 ng/mL
≥ 18 year olds 0-6 ng/mL
HCV & HIV NATNATNonreactive
HER2/neu FISHERBB2; Her2/NEUNormal range for breast tumors without amplification in this laboratory is an ERBB-2:chromosome 17 ratio of <1.8. ERBB-2 amplification is defined as a ratio of > 2.2. A ratio of 1.8-2.2 is interpreted as equivocal.

This test is most useful as an adjunct to immunohistochemical analysis of ERB-B2 protein expression (Herceptest) to clarify the interpretation of 1+ and 2+ results.
HIV Antibody Screen ConfirmationHIVWB
Negative No reactivity
Indeterminate Reactivity that doesn't meet criteria for positive test.
Positive Reactivity to 2 or more of: p24, gp41, gp120/160
HIV Antibody and Antigen Combination Test HIVAANegative
HIV GenotypingMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
HIV PhenotypingMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)See Additional Information
HIV Rapid Antibody ScreenHIVRNegative
HIV-1 DNA, Qualitative - for patients < 6 month of ageMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
HIV-1 RNA, QuantitativeHIVRT< 40 copies/mL
< 1.60 log copies/mL
HIV-2 ConfirmationHIV2WBNegative
HLA Antibody Screening – Mixed BeadsILANS
HLA Antibody Specificity – Class IILLS1
HLA Antibody Specificity – Class II ILLS2
HLA Antibody Testing – Class I PRAILPRA1
HLA Antibody Testing – Class II PRAILPRA2
HLA-A High Resolution TypingILSEA
HLA-A Typing – Intermediate ResolutionILALD
HLA-ABC Typing – Intermediate ResolutionILSSP
HLA-B High Resolution TypingILSEB
HLA-B Typing – Intermediate ResolutionILBLD
HLA-B*1502 TypingIL1502
HLA-B*5701 TypingIL5701
HLA-B27 TypingILB27
HLA-C High Resolution TypingILSEC
HLA-C Typing – Intermediate ResolutionILCLD
HLA-DPA1 High Resolution TypingILDPA
HLA-DPB1 High Resolution TypingILDPB
HLA-DQA1 High Resolution TypingILDQA
HLA-DQB1 High Resolution TypingILDQB
HLA-DR/DQ Typing – Intermediate ResolutionILEXG
HLA-DRB1 High Resolution TypingILSED
HLA-DRB3/4/5 High Resolution TypingILDDX
HTLV-I/II AntibodyHTLV12 Negative
HaloperidolHALO
Therapeutic 5-15 ug/L
Toxic > 50 ug/L
Hantavirus Antibodies (IgG & IgM)HANTA
≤ 1.10 Antibody not detected
> 1.10 Antibody detected
Hantavirus, AntigenMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
HaptoglobinHAPT36-195 mg/dL
Heart-Reactive AntibodyMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Heat Shock Protein AntibodyMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Not present
Helicobacter pylori AntigenHPAGNot detected
Helicobacter pylori CultureP131
Helicobacter pylori IgG AntibodyHELI
Negative < 20.1 Units
Equivocal 20.1-24.9 Units
Positive > 24.9 Units
Helper, Suppressor and Total T cellsTHI
Population % Lymphs Absolute count
CD4 T Cells 24-64% 440-1496 x106cells/L
CD8 T Cells 14-40% 270-918 x106cells/L
CD3 (total T) Cells 55-88% 715-2431 x106cells/L


CD4 / CD8 (Helper/Supressor) ratio: 0.7-3.9

Note: Reference values are for ≥ 18 year olds. For pediatric ranges please see:

Kotylo, PA, et al. 1993. Reference ranges for Lymphocyte Subsets in Pediatric Patients. Am. J. Clin. Pathol 100:111-115

Lin, S-C., et al. 1998. Age-Related Changes in Blood Lymphocytes of Chinese Children. Ped. Allergy Immunol. 9:215-220

Melaranci, C., et al. 1992. T. Cell Subpopulations in Pediatric Healthy Children: age-normal values. J. Clin. Lab. Immunol. 30:143-149
Hematocrit (NCPL)NLHCT Hct:
0-7 days 45-67%
8-14 days 42-66%
2-4 weeks 39-63%
1-2 months 31-55%
2-3 months 28-42%
3-6 months 29-41%
6-24 months 33-39%
2-5 years 34-40%
5-12 years 35-45%
Male 12-15 years 37-49%
Male 15-18 years 38-49%
Male > 18 years 41-53%
Female > 12 years 36-46%


Calculated Hgb:
0-7 days 14.5-22.5 g/dL
8-14 days 13.5-21.5 g/dL
2-4 weeks 12.5-20.5 g/dL
1-2 months 10.0-18.0 g/dL
2-3 months 9.0-14.0 g/dL
3-6 months 9.5-13.5 g/dL
6-24 months 11.0-13.5 g/dL
2-5 years 11.2-13.5 g/dL
5-8 years 11.4-15.5 g/dL
8-12 years 11.6-15.5 g/dL
Hematocrit, Body Fluid-AutomatedBHCTRBCs are not normally present
Hematocrit, Body Fluid-ManualBHCTMRBCs are not normally present
Hematocrit, automatedHCT, HCTM, CBC, CBCD, ORHT, LBGH
0-7 days 45-67%
8-14 days 42-66%
2-4 weeks 39-63%
1-2 months 31-55%
2-3 months 28-42%
3-6 months 29-41%
6-24 months 33-39%
2-5 years 34-40%
5-12 years 35-45%
Male 12-15 years 37-49%
Male 15-18 years 38-49%
Male > 18 years 41-53%
Female > 12 years 36-46%
Hematocrit, spunNSH
0-7 days 45-67%
8-14 days 42-66%
2-4 weeks 39-63%
1-2 months 31-55%
2-3 months 28-42%
3-6 months 29-41%
6-24 months 33-39%
2-5 years 34-40%
5-12 years 35-45%
Male 12-15 years 37-49%
Male 15-18 years 38-49%
Male > 18 years 41-53%
Female > 12 years 36-46%
Hemochromatosis, HereditaryHHEMNo mutation detected.
HemoglobinHGB, CBC, CBCD, LBGH
0-7 days 14.5-22.5 g/dL
8-14 days 13.5-21.5 g/dL
2-4 weeks 12.5-20.5 g/dL
1-2 months 10.0-18.0 g/dL
2-3 months 9.0-14.0 g/dL
3-6 months 9.5-13.5 g/dL
6-24 months 11.0-13.5 g/dL
2-5 years 11.2-13.5 g/dL
5-8 years 11.4-15.5 g/dL
8-12 years 11.6-15.5 g/dL
Male 12-15 years 12.3-16.0 g/dL
Male 15-18 years 12.6 -17.0 g/dL
Male > 18 years 13.6-17.5 g/dL
Female 12-15 years 11.8-15.5 g/dL
Female > 15 years 12.0-15.5 g/dL
Hemoglobin A1cHBA1Non-Diabetic: 4.3-5.6%
Hemoglobinopathy EvaluationHBEP
Age Hgb F Hgb A2 Hgb A
0 to 6 days 77.0-97.9% < 1.0% 2.4-22.4%
7 to 14 days 79.6-91.4% 0.0-1.0% 8.5-19.8%
15 to 45 days 59.8-89.6% 0.0-1.5% 12.9-51.1%
46 days to < 3 months 23.9-67.2% 0.6-1.9% 35.8-77.3%
3 month to < 6 months 4.4-27.5% 1.7-2.8% 75.3-96.6%
6 months to < 9 months 1.5-27.8% 2.1-2.9% 81.1-97.6%
9 months to < 15 months 0.4-8.4% 2.2-3.2% 91.2-98.3%
15 months to < 2 years 0.1-4.9% 2.2-3.2% 94.4-98.0%
2 years to < 6 years 0.0-3.7% 2.2-3.2% 95.7-98.0%
6 years and older <1.0% 2.2-3.2% 96.7-97.8%


Pediatric reference ranges adopted from Pediatric Reference Intervals 7th edition.
Adult reference ranges adopted from vendor (Sebia) performed studies and verified by UCSF Clinical Labs by running 52 outpatient samples with a normal RBC, WBC, Hct, MCV and A1c.
Hemophilia A InversionINVNNegative
Hemosiderin Stain, urineHMSUNegative
Heparin Laboratory/Dosing Algorithm post-initial bolus therapy
Heparin Level (Low Molecular Weight Heparin)HEP Therapeutic (4 hours post dose):

Enoxaparin:
Q12 dosing 0.5-1.0 U/mL
Qday dosing 1.0-2.0 U/mL
Prophylactic dosing 0.2-0.4 U/mL


Dalteparin:
Q12 dosing 0.6 U/mL
Qday dosing 1.05 U/mL


Tinzaparin:
Qday dosing 0.85 U/mL


These are general guidelines only. Detailed recommendations for heparin therapy and monitoring are available through the UCSF Comprehensive Hemostasis and Antithrombotic Service (CHAS), which can be contacted at pager 443-4023.
Heparin Level (Unfractionated heparin)UFHEP Therapeutic:

UFH by infusion 0.3-0.7 anti-Xa U/mL
Heparin-PF4 Complex Antibodies (Revised Test)HIPABHeparin-Induced PLT AB: Negative
Patient O.D.: <0.400
Hepatitis A virus Antibody IgG HAVIGGNegative
Hepatitis A, IgM AntibodyHAVMNegative
Hepatitis B Core Antibody, IgMCORMNegative
Hepatitis B Core Antibody, TotalCORENegative
Hepatitis B DNA, Qualitative NOT ORDERABLE
Hepatitis B DNA, QuantitativeHBVRTTarget not detected (< 10 IU/mL)
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody, Quantitative HBABQ
< 8 mIU/mL Not immune
8-11 mIU/mL Equivocal, questionable immunity
≥ 12 mmIU/mL Immune
Hepatitis B Surface AntigenHBAGNegative
Hepatitis B Virus Drug Resistance & BCP/Precore MutationsHBVDRG
Hepatitis B e AntibodyAHBENegative
Hepatitis B e AntigenHBENegative
Hepatitis C AntibodyHCVNegative
Hepatitis C Antibody, ConfirmationHCVC
Hepatitis C FibrosureHCVF Reference ranges for individual tests:

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Male 0-55 IU/L
Female 0-40 IU/L


A2-macroglobulin 110-276 mg/dL


Apolipoprotein A-1
Male 110-180 mg/dL
Female 110-205 mg/dL


Bilirubin, total
Newborns term and near term:
24 hours old 0.0-8.0 mg.dL
48 hours old 0.0-13.2 mg/dL
72 hours old 0.0-15.6 mg/dL
96 hours old 0.0-16.6 mg/dL
≥ 1 month old 0.0-1.2 mg/dL
Adults 0.0-1.2 mg/dL


Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)
Male 0-65 IU/L
Female 0-60 IU/L


Haptoglobin 34-200 mg/dL


Metavir scale:
Fibrosis stage (Fibro test):
F0 - no fibrosis 0.00-0.21
F0-F1 0.21-0.27
F1 - portal fibrosis 0.27-0.31
F1-F2 0.31-0.48
F2 - bridging fibrosis with few septa 0.48-0.58
F3 - bridging fibrosis with many septa 0.58-0.72
F3-F4 0.72-0.74
F4 - cirrhosis 0.74 - 1.00


Activity grade (ActiTest):
A0 - no activity 0.00-0.17
A0-A1 0.17-0.29
A1 - minimal activity 0.29-0.36
A1-A2 0.36-0.52
A2 - moderate activity 0.52-0.60
A2-A3 0.60-0.62
A3 - severe activity 0.62-1.00
Hepatitis C GenotypingHCVG
Hepatitis C RNA, QuantitativeHCVRTTarget not detected (< 12 IU/mL or < 1.08 log IU/mL)
Hepatitis D AntibodyHDVNegative
Hepatitis E Antibody, IgM HEVMNot detected
Hereditary Spherocytosis Evaluation HSEP 0.50 g/dL NaCl (unincubated)
Males 0.0-47.8% hemolysis
Females 0.0-31.1% hemolysis


0.60 g/dL NaCl (incubated)
Males 18.7-67.4% hemolysis
Females 10.9-65.5% hemolysis


0.65 g/dL NaCl (incubated)
Males 4.4-36.6% hemolysis
Females 0.2-39.3% hemolysis


0.75 g/dL NaCl (incubated)
Males 0.8-9.1% hemolysis
Females 0.0-10.9% hemolysis
Herpes Simplex 1,2 Antibody, IgGHSVPNegative (Index < 0.90)
Herpes simplex 1,2 virus Antibody, IgMHSVM12Negative
Herpes simplex Antigen (DFA)P347Negative
Herpes simplex CultureP325
Herpes simplex Drug Susceptibility TestingP319
Herpes simplex, DNAAmniotic fluid: P319
Other samples: P337
Not detected
Heterophile AgglutinationMONONegative
Histamine, plasmaHIST0.1-1.8 ng/mL
Histamine, urineHISTU
Normal 0.006 - 0.131 mg/24 hours
Histone AntibodyHISTO< 1.0 U
Histoplasma capsulatum Antibody ImmunodiffusionHSTONegative
Histoplasma capsulatum Antibody, by Complement FixationHICFB< 1:8
Histoplasma capsulatum AntigenHISTAG
<0.7 Negative
0.7-2.9 Borderline
>2.9 Moderate to strong positive
Hold Array CGHHACGHNormal
Hold SpecimenHSFD
Homocysteine, TotalHCYS
Age Male & Female
5 days to <1 year 3-10 umol/L
1-11 years 3-8 umol/L
12-14 years 5-10 umol/L
15-18 years 5-13 umol/L
19-70 years 4-14 umol/L
>70 years 6-20 umol/L
Homovanillic Acid, 24 hour urineHVA
3-8 years 0.5-6.7 mg/d
9-12 years 1.1-6.8 mg/d
13-17 years 1.4-7.2 mg/d
> 17 years 1.6-7.5 mg/d
Homovanillic Acid, random urineHVAR Homovanillic acid in random urine:
Birth-6 months 9.1-36 mg/g creatinine
7-11 months 11.2-33 mg/g creatinine
1-2 years 8.5-38 mg/g creatinine
3-8 years 2.1-23 mg/g creatinine
9-12 years 1.1-12 mg/g creatinine
≥ 18 year olds 1.4-5.3 mg/g creatinine


Creatinine in random urine:
Birth-6 months 0.02-0.32 g/L
7-11 months 0.02-0.36 g/L
1-2 years 0.02-1.28 g/L
3-8 years 0.2-1.49 g/L
9-12 years 0.02-1.83 g/L
≥ 18 year olds 0.27-3.00 g/L
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Testing
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Pregnancy, Urine ≥ 18 year oldHCGUANegative (non-pregnant)
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Pregnancy, Urine < 18 year oldHCGUPENegative (non-pregnant)
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Pregnancy, serum, ≥ 18 year old (Adult)HCGPA
Normal (Non-pregnant) < 5 IU/L


Representative hCG ranges during normal pregnancy are summarized below and are based on values previously reported by the assay manufacturer for the method employing the WHO 3rd IS and that have been adjusted to reflect the increased levels in the new method employing the WHO 5th IS.

0.2-1 weeks 5-65 IU/L
1-2 weeks 65-650 IU/L
2-3 weeks 130-6500 IU/L
3-4 weeks 650-13,000 IU/L
4-5 weeks 1300-65,000 IU/L
5-6 weeks 13,000-130,000 IU/L
6-8 weeks 19,500-260,000 IU/L
8-12 weeks 13,000-130,000 IU/L
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Pregnancy, serum, < 18 year old (Pediatric)HCGPP
Normal (Non-pregnant) < 5 IU/L


Representative hCG ranges during normal pregnancy are summarized below and are based on values previously reported by the assay manufacturer for the method employing the WHO 3rd IS and that have been adjusted to reflect the increased levels in the new method employing the WHO 5th IS.

0.2-1 weeks 5-65 IU/L
1-2 weeks 65-650 IU/L
2-3 weeks 130-6500 IU/L
3-4 weeks 650-13,000 IU/L
4-5 weeks 1300-65,000 IU/L
5-6 weeks 13,000-130,000 IU/L
6-8 weeks 19,500-260,000 IU/L
8-12 weeks 13,000-130,000 IU/L
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Tumor, CSFBHCGC< 1.5 IU/L
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Tumor, serumHCGT
Males < 3 IU/L
Females < 6 IU/L
Human Herpes virus 7, DNAHHV7
Human Herpes virus 8, DNAHHV8Not detected
Human Herpesvirus 6, DNAHHV6
Human Papilloma Virus High-Risk DNA Types with Reflex HPV 16/18 (New test)HPVHRNot detected
Human Papilloma Virus High-Risk DNA Types without Reflex HPV 16/18HPVNONot detected
Huntington's Disease Triplet RepeatHUNTNormal
Hydroxycorticosteroids, 17-17HS Reference ranges not established for infants < 1 year old.

Male & Female Normal Range
1-2 years 0.5 - 2.5 mg/24 hr
3-4 years 1.0- 4.0 mg/24hr
5-6 years 1.0 - 4.8 mg/24hr
7-8 years 1.0 - 5.6 mg/24hr
9-10 years 1.0 - 7.0 mg/24hr
11-12 years 1.5 - 8.0 mg/24hr


Age Male Female
13-16 years 2.0 - 6.0 mg/24hr 2.8 - 6.8 mg/24hr
17-20 years 3.0- 10.0 mg/24hr 2.0- 7.0 mg/24hr
> 20 years 3.0 -10.0 mg/24hr 2.0 - 6.0 mg/24hr
Hydroxypregnenolone, 17-HPRE
Cord blood 50-2121 ng/dL
Premature infants 64-2380 ng/dL
Full-term infants-3 days 10-829 ng/dL
1-6 months 36-763 ng/dL
6-12 months 42-540 ng/dL
Pre-pubertal child (1-10 y/o) 15-221 ng/dL
Pubertal age groups 44 -235 ng/dL
≥ 18 year olds 53-357 ng/dL
Hydroxyprogesterone, 17-17HP
Premature Infants (31 – 35 weeks) ≤ 360 ng/dL
Term Infants (3 days) ≤ 420 ng/dL


Pediatric:
1 – 12 months 11 – 170 ng/dL
1 – 4 years 4 – 115 ng/dL
5 – 9 years ≤ 90 ng/dL
10 – 13 years ≤ 169 ng/dL
14 – 17 years 16 – 283 ng/dL


Pregnancy:
First Trimester 78 – 457 ng/dL
Second Trimester 90 – 357 ng/dL
Third Trimester 44 – 578 ng/dL


≥ 18 year old males:
8-30 years 32-307 ng/dL
31-40 years 42-196 ng/dL
41-50 years 33-195 ng/dL
51-60 years 37-129 ng/dL


≥ 18 year old females:
Follicular phase ≤ 185 ng/dL
Mid-cycle phase ≤ 225 ng/dL
Luteal phase ≤ 285 ng/dL
Postmenopausal ≤ 45 ng/dL
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis PanelHPTANegative
IGF-1, AdultAIGF1 Age
18-19.9 years 108-548
20-24.9 years 83-456
25-29.9 years 63-373
30-39.9 years 53-331
40-49.9 years 52-328
50-59.9 years 50-317
60-69.9 years 41-279
70-79.9 years 34-245
>80 years 34-246
IGF-Binding Protein 3BP3
Premature Range Mean
0-1 month 0.3-1.4 mg/L 0.9 mg/L
2-3 months 0.9-2.3 mg/L 1.6 mg/L
4-5 months 0.4-2.2 mg/L 1.5 mg/L
6-11 months 1.0-2.3 mg/L 1.5 mg/L


Full term Range Mean
0-1 months 0.4-1.7 mg/L 0.9 mg/L
2-3 months 0.5-2.1 mg/L 1.3 mg/L
4-5 months 0.6-2.4 mg/L 1.4 mg/L
6-11 months 0.5-2.4 mg/L 1.4 mg/L
Range Mean
1-4 years 0.8-3.0 mg/L 2.1 mg/L
5-6 years 1.5-3.4 mg/L 2.4 mg/L
7-8 years 2.1-4.2 mg/L 3.0 mg/L
9-11 years 2.0-4.8 mg/L 3.3 mg/L
12-13 years 2.1-6.2 mg/L 3.8 mg/L
14-15 years 2.2-5.9 mg/L 4.2 mg/L
16-18 years 2.5-4.8 mg/L 3.5 mg/L
19-30 years 2.0-4.2 mg/L 3.0 mg/L
31-70 years 1.9-3.6 mg/L 2.7 mg/L
IGF-I, PediatricPIGF1 Newborns and Infants
Age Term (ng/mL) Preterm (ng/mL)
Birth 15-109 21-93
1 day-2 months 15-109 23-163
3-4 months 7-124 23-171
5-6 months 7-93 15-132
7-12 months 15-101 15-179


Children
Age Male Range (ng/mL) Female Range (ng/mL)
1-2 years 30-122 56-144



Male Pubertal Ranges by Tanner Stage
Age Tanner 1 (ng/mL) Tanner 2 & 3 (ng/mL) Tanner 4 & 5 (ng/mL)
3 years 20-141
4 years 25-157
5 years 30-174
6 years 37-192
7 years 44-211
8 years 52-231 39-264
9 years 61-252 52-304
10 years 71-275 67-347
11 years 82-299 86-393 277-673
12 years 93-324 106-443 265-652
13 years 106-350 130-497 241-612
14 years 120-377 156-554 220-574
15 years 127-391 185-616 199-537
16 years 201-648 180-501
17 years 161-467
18 years 144-434


Female Pubertal ranges by Tanner Stage
Age Tanner 1 ng/mL) Tanner 2 (ng/mL) Tanner 3 (ng/mL) Tanner 4 & 5 (ng/mL)
3 years 26-162
4 years 32-179
5 years 39-198
6 years 47-217
7 years 55-238
8 years 64-259 89-369
9 years 74-282 96-399 192-568
10 years 85-306 104-431 192-568 279-664
11 years 97-332 112-466 192-568 268-646
12 years 110-358 121-504 192-568 248-612
13 years 131-545 192-568 229-579
14 years 136-566 192-568 211-547
15 years 192-568 194-516
16 years 177-487
17 years 162-458
18 years 147-430


Adults
Age Male (ng/mL) Female (ng/mL)
19-20 years 281-510 217-475
21-30 years 155-432 87-368
31-40 years 132-333 106-368
41-50 years 121-237 118-298
51-60 years 68-245 53-287
61-70 years 60-220 75-263
71-80 years 36-215 54-205

IGF-IIIGF2
Prepuberty 334-642 µg/L
Puberty 245-737 µg/L
≥ 18 year old 288-736 µg/L
IL28B GenotypeIL28BC/C rs12079860, T/T rs8099917
IbuprofenIBUP
Normal 0-49 mg/L
Potentially toxic 50-74 mg/L
Toxic > 75 mg/L
Ig Heavy-Chain Gene RearrangementMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
IgA, serumIGA
Cord blood 1-4 mg/dL
1 month 1-53 mg/dL
2 months 3-47 mg/dL
3 months 5-46 mg/dL
4 months 4-73 mg/dL
5 months 8-84 mg/dL
6 months 8-68 mg/dL
7-9 months 11-90 mg/dL
10-12 months 16-84 mg/dL
1-3 years 14-159 mg/dL
4-5 years 25-154 mg/dL
6-10 years 33-236 mg/dL
> 10 years 89-581 mg/dL
IgD, serumIGD< 179 mg/L
IgE, SpecificIGES, BTRAST
Undectectable Ab < 0.35 KU/L
Low level Ab 0.35-0.70 KU/L
Moderate level Ab 0.71-3.50 KU/L
High level Ab 3.51-17.5 KU/L
Very High level Ab > 17.5 KU/L


Asm. % Ref Interpretation
< 70 None detected
70-109 Very low positive
110-219 Low positive
220-599 Moderate positive
60-1999 High positive
2000-5999 Very high positive
> 5999 Extremely high positive


Note: LabCorp Reference range for B&T patrients

< 0.08 KU/L
IgE, serumIGE
Age IU/mL
0-12 months 0-24 IU/mL
1-3 years 2-149 IU/mL
4-10 years 8-279 IU/mL
11-15 years 5-295 IU/mL
≥16 years < 165 IU/mL


Note:
Pediatric reference ranges have not been validated by the UCSF Clinical Laboratories.

Pediatric reference ranges are from : Soldin, SJ, et al. 1995. Pediatric Reference Ranges on the Abbott IMx for FSH, LH, Prolactin, TSH, T4, T3, free T4, free T3, T-Uptake, IgE, and Ferritin. Clinical Biochemistry, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 603-606
IgG Index, CSF IGGI and IGGIS
CSF IgG 0.3-4.3 mg/dL
CSF Albumin 5.4-31.8 mg/dL
Serum IgG 672-1760 mg/dL
Serum Albumin (> 10 yer old) 3400-4700 mg/dL
IgG Index, CSF 0.3-0.6
IgG Subclasses 1-4GSUB
IgG1 IgG2 IgG3 IgG4
0-1 year 194-182 mg/dL 23-300 mg/dL 19-85 mg/dL 0.5 -78 mg/dL
2-3 years 315-945 mg/dL 38-225 mg/dL 17-68 mg/dL 1.0-54 mg/dL
4-5 years 308-945 mg/dL 61-345 mg/dL 10-122 mg/dL 2.0-112 mg/dL
6-7 years 288-918 mg/dL 44-375 mg/dL 16-85 mg/dL 0.4-98 mg/dL
8-9 years 432-1020 mg/dL 72-430 mg/dL 13-85 mg/dL 2.0-95 mg/dL
10-11 years 423-1080 mg/dL 78-355 mg/dL 17-173 mg/dL 2.0-115 mg/dL
12-13 years 342-1150 mg/dL 100-455 mg/dL 28-125 mg/dL 4.0-136 mg/dL
14-17 years 315-855 mg/dL 64-495 mg/dL 23-198 mg/dL 11-157 mg/dL
≥ 18 year olds 382-929 mg/dL 241-700 mg/dL 22-178 mg/dL 4-86 mg/dL
IgG, CSF (See also IgG Index, CSF)IGGC0.9-5.7 mg/dL
IgG, serumIGG
Cord Blood 636-1606 mg/dL
1 months 251-906 mg/dL
2 months 206-601 mg/dL
3 months 176-581 mg/dL
4 months 196-558 mg/dL
5 months 172-814 mg/dL
6 months 215-704 mg/dL
7-9 months 217-904 mg/dL
10-12 months 294-1069 mg/dL
1-3 years 345-1213 mg/dL
4-5 years 463-1236 mg/dL
6-10 years 608-1572 mg/dL
> 10 years 672-1760 mg/dL
IgM, serumIGM
Cord Blood 6-25 mg/dL
1 months 20-87 mg/dL
2 months 17-105 mg/dL
3 months 24-89 mg/dL
4 months 27-101 mg/dL
5 months 33-108 mg/dL
6 months 35-102 mg/dL
7-9 months 34-126 mg/dL
10-12 months 41-149 mg/dL
1-3 years 43-200 mg/dL
4-5 years 43-196 mg/dL
6-10 years 48-242 mg/dL
> 10 years 39-333 mg/dL
ImipramineIMIP
Therapeutic 150-250 µg/L for the SUM of active drugs.
Toxic ≥ 500 µg/L
Immune Cell FunctionICF
≤ 225 ng/mL ATP Low Immune Cell Response
226-524 ng/mL ATP Moderate Immune Cell Response
≥ 525 ng/mL ATP Strong Immune Cell Response
Immune ComplexesIC
Negative ≤ 25.1 µg Eq/mL (mcg Eq/mL)

Immunofixation Electrophoresis, serumIFENegative. No paraproteins present.
Immunofixation Electrophoresis, urineIFEU
Influenza A virus antibodyFLUANegative titer < 1:8
Influenza B antibodyFLUBNegative titer < 1:8
Inhibin AINHNA
Inhibin BINHNB
Inhibitor Screen for Partial Thromboplastin Time PTTISNegative
Inhibitor Screen for Prothrombin Time PTISNegative
Insect Venom IgG AntibodyMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Interpretation:
< 1.0-3.4 mg/L Low level of IgG antibody indicatcating a significant risk of reaction in patients with a history of systemic anaphylaxis from hymenoptera sting and/or positive skin test to venom.

≥ 3.5 mg/L Moderate level of IgG antibody to venom associated with a reduced risk, depending on history.
InsulinINS
Fasting 3.3-22.1 µU/mL

Reference range was adopted from UC Davis Clinical Labs based on in-house validation studies performed using the same instrument-methodology (Siemens Centaur) on samples from adult subjects with normal FBS (70-99 mg/dL) and A1c (4.3-5.6%).

Note: if patient was not fasting the normal ranges may not apply.

Pediatric reference ranges not available for this immunoassay platform.
Insulin AutoantibodyINHS< 0.4 U/mL
Insulin, C-peptideCPEP
Fasting 0.8-3.1 ng/mL


Reference range was adopted from Quest Diagnostics-San Juan Capistrano based on in-house validation studies performed using the same instrument-methodology (Siemens Centaur) on samples from adult subjects with normal FBS (70-99 mg/dL) and A1c (4.3-5.6%).

Note: if patient was not fasting the normal ranges may not apply.

Pediatric reference ranges not available for this immunoassay platform.
Interleukin-2 Receptor, Soluble (New test)< 1033 pg/mL
Interleukin-6IL60.31-5.00 pg/mL
Intracellular Kappa & Lambda Light Chains ICKLPositive
Intrinsic Factor Blocking AntibodyIFBANegative
Inversion, Deletion or Translocation 16q FISHINV16QNo inversion, deletion or translocation identified
Iodine, 24 hour urine IODI70-500 µg/24Hr
Iodine, Random UrineIODUR34-523 µg/mL
Iron, Transferrin and % Transferrin Saturation PanelFE Iron:
Age Male Female
0 - 1 week 100 - 250 µg/dL 100 - 250 µg/dL
1 week - 1 year 40 - 100 µg/dL 40 - 100 µg/dL
1 - 6 years 22 - 136 µg/dL 22 - 136 µg/dL
6 - 10 years 39 - 136 µg/dL 39 - 136 µg/dL
10 - 14 years 28 - 134 µg/dL 45 - 145 µg/dL
14 - 18 years 34 - 162 µg/dL 28 - 184 µg/dL
> 18 years 42 - 175 µg/dL 29 - 189 µg/dL


Transferrin 182-360 mg/dL


Transferrin Saturation 10-47%


Note:
1. Normal range for infants 0-1 year adapted from "Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry" Tietz, 5th edition, 2001.
2. Normal range for children 1-18 years adopted from Soldin, Steven J, "Pediatric Reference Intervals", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 1.
3. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Iron, liverFEBX
Males 200-2400 µg per g dry wt of liver Females 400-1600 µg per g dry wt of liver Iron Index < 1.0
Iron, serumIRON
Age Male Female
0 - 6 days 100 - 250 µg/dL 100 - 250 µg/dL
7 days - 11 months 40 - 100 µg/dL 40 - 100 µg/dL
1 - 5 years 22 - 136 µg/dL 22 - 136 µg/dL
6 - 9 years 39 - 136 µg/dL 39 - 136 µg/dL
10 - 13 years 28 - 134 µg/dL 45 - 145 µg/dL
14 - 17 years 34 - 162 µg/dL 28 - 184 µg/dL
≥ 18 years 42 - 175 µg/dL 29 - 189 µg/dL


Note:
1. Normal range for infants 0-1 year adapted from "Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry" Tietz, 5th edition, 2001.
2. Normal range for children 1-18 years adopted from Soldin, Steven J, "Pediatric Reference Intervals", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 1.
3. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Iron, urineFEU100-300 µg/specimen
Islet Cell AntibodyICABNegative
Islet Cell Antigen 512 AntibodyICAChildren and adults positive result: 0.070 or greater (Index)
Isochrome 17q FISH
17p:17q 0.97 +/- 0.07
%17p deleted cells < 20%
%isochromosome 17q cells <2%
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1 & IDH2) exon 4 mutation analysis (New test)MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)No mutations detected
Isohemagglutinin TiterISO
Itraconazole ITRC< 0.1 µg/mL
JC Virus DNA, QuantitativeJCVNot detected
JC virus Antibody JCABNegative
Janus kinase 2 Mutation, QualitativeJAK2Negative
Janus kinase 2 Mutation, QuantitativeMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Jo-1 AntibodyJO1< 1.0 AI
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia Associated Exon Panel – Family F/UFJMMLNegative
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia Associated Exon PanelJMMLNegative
KIR Genotype – Low ResolutionILKIR
KRAS Mutation testingNegative for KRAS mutations at codons 12 and 13.
Kappa and Lambda Free light Chains, serumFKL
Kappa light chains 3.3-19.4 mg/L
Lambda light chains 5.7-26.3 mg/L
Kappa/Lambda ratio 0.26-1.65
Ketones, Qualitative, urineUA or UAWMNegative
Ketosteroids, 17-17KS
Age(years) Male Female
0 < 1.0 mg/d < 1.0 mg/d
1 < 2.0 mg/d < 2.0 mg/d
5 < 3.0 mg/d < 3.0 mg/d
9 3.0-10.0 mg/d 3.0-10.0 mg/d
13 5.0-12.0 mg/d 5.0-12.0 mg/d
17 9.0-22.0 mg/d 6.0-15.0 mg/d
21 8.0-20.0 mg/d
> 21 8.0-20.0 mg/d 6.0-15.0 mg/d

LCM Virus AntibodyLCMNegative titer < 8
LRF Test
Lactate Dehydrogenase, Body FluidLDB
Lactate Dehydrogenase, CSFLDCF5-10% of serum level
Lactate Dehydrogenase, Serum / PlasmaLD
Age Male & Female Male Female
< 1 month 125-735 U/L --- ---
1 month - 11 months 170-450 U/L --- ---
1 year - 4 years -- 140-304 U/L 142-297 U/L
5 years - 9 years -- 155-290 U/L 142-261 U/L
10 years - 14 years -- 115-257 U/L 122-234 U/L
≥ 15 years 102-199 U/L


1. Pediatric reference ranges for children <1 year adapted from Soldin, Steven J. Pediatric Reference Intervals (method 3), 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007.
2. Normal range for children 1 to less than 15 years old adapted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
3. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF. Adult range used for pediatric patients >15 years.
Lactate, CSFLACS1.1-2.8 mmol/L
Lactate, plasmaLACT
Age Normal Range
0 - 2 months 1.0-3.5 mmol/L
3 months - 1 year 1.0-3.3 mmol/L
2 - 18 years 1.0-2.4 mmol/L
≥ 18 years 0.5-2.2 mmol/L


Adult reference range from Beckman's Lactate Information Sheet which references Tietz, N. W., Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, 3rd Edition, Philadelphia, PA (1995). Adult range verified by testing 24 laboratory staff (July 2011).

Pediatric reference ranges adopted from Soldin, Steven J. Pediatric Reference Intervals (method 3), 6th edition, 2007.
Lactate, whole blood (NCPL only)LACTWB0.5-2.0 mmol/L
Lactoferrin, stoolLACTOFNegative
Lamellar Body CountLBC
> 50 x 10e9/L Mature
15 - 50 x 10e9/L Transitional
< 15 x 10e9/L Immature
LamotrigineLAMI4.0-18.0 µg/mL
Lead, 24 hour urinePBUR< 80 µg/L
Lead, bloodLEAD< 5 µg/dL

Source of reference ranges:
The Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables, September 2012, Department of Health and Human Services (based on NHANES 2009- 2010)

California Management Guidelines on Childhood Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers
http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/CLPPB/Pages/ScreenRegs-CLPPB.aspx

For OSHA guidelines on monitoring lead levels in the workplace and for information on lead levels that require removal of an employee from work (workplace exposure to lead), see http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=standards&p_id=10030
Lead, random urinePBURR
Nonexposed < 10 µg/g creatinine
LeflunomideLEFLSee Additional Information
Legionella CultureP125Negative
Legionella DNAP356Not detected
Legionella pneumophila urinary antigenLEGAUNegative
Legionella pneumophilia Antibodies (IgG and IgM) LEGABTiter < 1:64
Leishmania species AntibodiesLEISHNegative
Leishmania, CultureP406See Additional Information
Leishmania, Giemsa StainP403LNo Leishmania seen
LeptinLEPN Adult Lean Subjects (18-61years) with BMI range of 18-25:
Males 1.2 - 9.5 ng/mL
Females 4.1 - 25.0 ng/mL


Adult Subjects (19-60 years) with BMI range 25-30:
Males 1.6 - 20.9 ng/mL
Females 13.1 - 40.8 ng/mL


Pediatric: Male Female
Prepubertal 1.6-10.8 ng/mL 1.7-10.6 ng/mL
Tanner Stages II-III 2.1-11.6 ng/mL 2.6-11.5 ng/mL
Tanner Stages IV-V 3.4-10.2 ng/mL 3.4-13.0 ng/mL
Leptospira AntibodyLEPT
Negative < 1:50
Borderline 1:50
Positive ≥1:100
Leukemia Minimal Residual Disease Testing (Flow cytometry)MRDFC
Leukemia/Lymphoma Markers
LEUM Blood
LEUMBF Bone marrow and other body fluids
See Additional Information
Leukocyte PhenotypingSee individual tests in 'Additional information'
LevetiracetamLEV
Dosage Trough Peak
500 mg BID 3.1-10.0 µg/mL 10.0-25.0 µg/mL
1000 mg BID 4.9-37.1 µg/mL 30.0-40.0 µg/mL
1500 mg BID 7.0-34.0 µg/mL 36.1-70.0 µg/mL


Note: Toxic levels not established
LidocaineLIDO
Therapeutic 1.5-5.0 mg/L
LipaseLIPA19-56 U/L

Normal range was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy adult blood donors at UCSF.
Lipoprotein (a)LPA< 75 nmol/L
Lipoprotein-PLA2LPLA0-234 ng/mL
Listeria AntibodiesMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Negative < 8 titer
LithiumLI
Therapeutic 0.5-1.5 mmol/L
Liver Kidney Microsome Antibody, IgGLKM
Negative ≤ 20.0 units
Equivocal 20-1-24.9 units
Positive ≥ 25 units
Lupus Anticoagulant InformationLUPUS
Lupus Anticoagulant by HEXAHEXANegative
Luteinizing HormoneLH
Males 20-70 years 0.7-7.9 IU/L
Males > 70 years 3.1-34.6 IU/L


Females
Follicular phase 1.9-12.5 IU/L
Mid-cycle peak 8.7-76.3 IU/L
Luteal phase 0.5-16.9 IU/L
Pregnant <0.1-1.5
Post-menopausal 15.9-54.0 IU/L
Luteinizing hormone, PediatricPLH Results are expressed in terms of W.H.O. 2nd Int'l Standard, Human Pituitary LH 80/552

Infants 2 weeks-11 months: Values increase about two weeks after birth to a range of 0.02-7.0 mIU/mL within the first three months, then decline to prepubertal values by the end of the first year.

Prepubertal children 12 mo-8 years: 0.02-0.3 mIU/mL

Male Normal Range-Puberty
Tanner Stage Age (years) Range
1 < 9.8 0.02-0.3 mIU/mL
2 9.8-14.5 0.2-4.9 mIU/mL
3 10.7-15.4 0.2-5.0 mIU/mL
4 11.8-17.3 0.4-7.0 mIU/mL


Female Normal Ranges-Puberty
Tanner Stage Age (years) Range
1 < 9.2 0.02-0.18 mIU/mL
2 9.2-13.7 0.02-4.7 mIU/mL
3 10.0-14.4 0.10-12.0 mIU/mL
4 10.7-18.6 0.4-11.7 mIU/mL
Lyme Disease Ab Confirmation (WB)LYMEWBNegative
Lyme Disease Antibody Total (EIA)LYMETNegative
Lyme Disease Antibody, CSFLYMCNo bands detected
Lyme Disease DNA, Qualitative (New test)MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Not detected
Lymphocyte Antigen StimulationLPAG
Viability of lymphocytes at day 0 ≥ 75.0%
Maximum proliferation of Candida albicans as % CD45 ≥ 5.7%
Maximum proliferation of Candida albicans as % CD3 ≥ 3.0%
Maximum proliferation of tetanus toxoid as % CD45 ≥ 5.2%
Maximum proliferation of tetanus toxoid as % CD3 ≥ 3.3%

Lymphocyte Mitogen StimulationLPMG
Viability of lymphocytes at day 0 ≥ 75.0%
Maximum proliferation of phytohemagglutinin as % CD45 ≥ 49.9%
Maximum proliferation of phytohemagglutinin as % CD3 ≥ 58.5%
Maximum proliferation of pokeweed mitogen as % CD45 ≥ 4.5%
Maximum proliferation of pokeweed mitogen as % CD3 ≥ 3.5%
Maximum proliferation of pokeweed mitogen as % CD19 ≥ 3.9%
Lymphocyte T-cell subsets, Naive and Memory RARO ≥ 18 year olds:
Subset Percentage Absolute
CD4+ CD45 RA+ 3-59% of CD4 T cells of CD4 T-cells 48-632 x106cells/L
CD4+ CD45 RO+ 31-76% of CD4 T cells 220-833 x106cells/L
CD8+ CD45 RA+ 15-75% of CD8 T cells 27-457 x106cells/L
CD8+ CD45 RO+ 11-65% of CD8 T cells 48-400 x106cells/L


For pediatric ranges please see following ranges established by Mayo Clinic - Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology; Rochester, MN 55905 (Laboratory Test Abstract Form - F 006284)

Pediatric:
CD4+ CD45 RA+ 21-75% of CD4 T cells 138-893 x106cells/L
CD4+ CD45 RO+ 11-44% of CD4 T cells 56-411 x106cells/L
CD8+ CD45 RA+ 23-88% of CD8 T cells 83-653 x106cells/L
CD8+ CD45 RO+ 2-26% of CD8 T cells 10-142 x106cells/L


Lymphocyte subsetsTBHS
Subset Percentage Absolute
CD3 (T) Cells 55-88% 715-2431 x106 cells/L
CD4 (helper-inducer) T Cells 24-64% 440-1496 x106 cells/L
CD8 (cytotoxic-suppressor) T Cells 14-40% 270-918 x106 cells/L
CD19 (B) Cells 6-22% 140-476 x106 cells/L
CD16, CD56 Natural Killer (NK) cells 3-29% 160-544 x106 cells/L

CD4/CD8 (H/S) Ratio: 0.7-3.9

Note: Reference values are for ≥ 18 year olds. For pediatric ranges please see:

Kotylo, PA, et al. 1993. Reference ranges for Lymphocyte Subsets in Pediatric Patients. Am. J. Clin. Pathol 100:111-115

Lin, S-C., et al. 1998. Age-Related Changes in Blood Lymphocytes of Chinese Children. Ped. Allergy Immunol. 9:215-220

Melaranci, C., et al. 1992. T. Cell Subpopulations in Pediatric Healthy Children: age-normal values. J. Clin. Lab. Immunol. 30:143-149
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus antibodies, CSFLCMC
Negative IgG <1:1
Negative IgM <1:1
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus antibodies, serumLCMS
Negative IgG <1:16
Negative IgM <1:20
Lymphogranuloma venereum Antibody PanelLGV
IgG <1:64
IgA <1:16
IgM <1:10
Lysosomal Disease ScreenLYDX
Lysozyme, serumLYSO4.0-10.3 ug/mL
Lysozyme, urineMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)< 4.0 mg/L
MGMT Promoter Methylation Assay Negative
No methylation
Methylation Index=0
MLL 11q23 FISHMLLQ23No deletion detected
MYC FISH1.03 +/- 0.19
MYCN FISH1.09 +/- 0.21
MaTa Antibody MATABNegative
Macroprolactin (New test)MACPRO
Magnesium, 24 hour urineMGU73-122 mg/D

See Additional information.
Magnesium, Serum / PlasmaMG1.8 - 2.4 mg/dL

Normal range was determined by testing 271 male and female adult healthy blood donors at UCSF. Pediatric patients will use adult range due to comparable ranges between UCSF's normal study and Soldin, Steven J. Pediatric Reference Intervals, 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007.
Magnesium, random urineMGURSee additional information
Malaria AntibodiesMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Malaria SmearP403MNegative
Manganese, bloodMN7-19 µg/L
Manganese, urineMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
M 0.5-3.0 µg/L
F 0.5-1.8 µg/L
Mannose Binding Lectin MBL≥ 100 ng/mL
Maternal Cell ContaminationMCCNegative
Maternal Cell Free Fetal DNA Testing CFFD
Measles Antibody, CSF, IgGMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Neagtive IgG < 1:64
Measles Antibody, CSF. TotalMEASC
Negative IgG < 1:64 Negative IgM < 1:1
Measles Antibody, IgG, serumMEAI
NEG Non-immune
POS Immune

Measles virus RNAP319No virus detected
Meperidine, serumMEPE Meperidine:
Therapeuitc 0.20-0.80 mg/L
Potentially Toxic > 1.50 mg/L


Nomeperidine:
Therapeutic Not established
Potentially Toxic > 1.00 mg/L
Mercury, 24 hour urineHGU
Normal ≥ 20 µg/L (Varies w/diet)
Toxic ≥ 150 µg/L
Mercury, bloodHG≤ 10 µg/L
Mercury, random urineHGUR
Nonexposed ≥ 18 year olds ≤ 4 µg/g creatinine
Biologic exposure Index (preshift) ≤ 35 µg/g creatinine
Metanephrines, 24 hour urineMETN Metanephrine
3 months-4 years 25-117 µg/d
5-9 years 11-139 µg/d
10-13 years 51-275 µg/d
14-17 years 40-189 µg/d
18-29 years 25-222 µg/d
30-39 years 36-190 µg/d
40-49 years 58-203 µg/d
≥ 50 years 90-315 µg/d


Normetanephrine
3 months-4 years 54-249 µg/d
5-9 years 31-398 µg/d
10-13 years 67-503 µg/d
14-17 years 69-531 µg/d
18-29 years 40-412 µg/d
30-39 years 35-482 µg/d
40-49 years 88-649 µg/d
≥ 50 years 122-676 µg/d


Metanephrine, Total
3 months-4 years 79-345 µg/d
5-9 years 49-408 µg/d
10-13 years 110-714 µg/d
14-17 years 107-741 µg/d
18-29 years 94-604 µg/d
30-39 years 115-695 µg/d
40-49 years 182-739 µg/d
≥ 50 years 224-832 µg/d
Metanephrines, Free, fractionated, plasmaMETNF
Metanephrine ≤ 57 pg/mL
Normetanephrine ≤ 148 pg/mL
Total ≤ 205 pg/mL
Metanephrines, random urineMETNR Metanephrine:
3 mo-4 years Not established
5-9 years 106-257 µg/g creatinine
10-13 years 34-357 µg/g creatinine
14-17 years 24-302 µg/g creatinine
18-29 years 39-146 µg/g creatinine
30-39 years 32-134 µg/g creatinine
40-49 years 33-192 µg/g creatinine
≥50 years 21-153 µg/g creatinine


Normetanephrine:
3 months-4 years Not Established
5-9 years 149-781 µg/g creatinine
10-13 years 38-523 µg/g creatinine
14-17 years 14-302 µg/g creatinine
18-29 years 91-365 µg/g creatinine
30-39 years 67-390 µg/g creatinine
40-49 years 85-514 µg/g creatinine
≥50 years 108-524 µg/g creatinine


Total metanephrines:
3 months-4 years Not Established
5-9 years 255-1167 µg/g creatinine
10-13 years 86-845 µg/g creatinine
14-17 years 39-578 µg/g creatinine
18-29 years 156-442 µg/g creatinine
30-39 years 94-445 µg/g creatinine
40-49 years 155-608 µg/g creatinine
≥50 years 149-603 µg/g creatinine
Metaphase / Interphase FISHCYFMBNormal. See Additional Information
Methadone screen, urineMETHA
Methadone, serumMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Therapeutic 0.05-1.0 mg/L
Toxic > 1.0 mg/L
Methicillin Resistant Staph aureus ScreenP114No MRSA isolated
MethotrexateMTX
Toxic > 0.1 µmol/L
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase mutationsMTRNegative
Methylmalonic Acid, serumMMA< 0.3 µmole/L
Methylmalonic Acid, urineMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)< 2.1 mmol/mol creatinine
MexiletineMEXL
Therapeutic 0.5-2.0 µg/mL
Toxic ≥ 1.5 µg/mL
Mi-2 AntibodyMI2Not detected
Microfilaria ExamP409MNegative
Microsatellite Instability
MicrosporidiaP414Negative
Miscellaneous Outside Laboratory TestMOLT
Miscellaneous Toxicology TestMTOX
Mitochondrial AntibodyAMITO
Negative titer < 40
Modified Inhibitor TiterMODIT< 0.25 BU
Molybdenum, bloodMOLY< 2.1 µg/L
Monitoring Anticoagulation
Monosomy 5 / Del5q FISHM5D5QNot detected
Monosomy 7 / Deletion 7q FISHM7D7QNot detected
Mucoploysaccharide Enzyme AnalysisMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Mucopolysaccharides, urine QuantitationMPSQNT< 48 mg/mmol creatinine
Mucopolysaccharides, urine by TLCMPSTLC
Multiple Myeloma FISH Panel CYMM
Mumps Antibody, IgM (New test)MUMM< 1:20 titer
Mumps virus Antibody, IgGMUMG
NEG Non-immune
POS Immune
Mumps virus Antibody, IgMMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Negative < 10
Mumps virus RNAP319No virus detected
Mycobacterial CultureP285No AFB isolated
Mycophenolic AcidMYCPA
Mycophenolic acid 1.0-3.5 µg/mL (trough)
MPA Glucuronide 35.0-100.0 µg/mL (trough)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae AntibodyMYCOP< 0.5 Index
Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNAP319Not detected
Myelin associated glycoprotein antibody, IgMMAGM
Normal < 1:1600
Moderately Elevated 1:1600-1:3200
Highly Elevated ≥ 1:6400
Myelodsyplastic Syndrome (MDS) Molecular Profile (New test)MDSPRO
Myelodysplastic Syndrome FISH Panel CYMDS
Myeloma Prognostic Risk ScoreMYPRS
Myeloperoxidase detection by flow cytometryMPO
Myositis Assessment Plus Jo-1 Ab PanelMYOABSNot detected
N-Telopeptide, 24 hour urineMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
≥ 18 year old premenopausal females 5-79 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine


≥ 18 year old males:
18-29 years 5-88 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
30-39 years 7-51 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
40-49 years 5-47 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
50-60 years 6-43 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
N-Telopeptide, random urineNTX Pediatric:

0-6 months 2-32 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
7-11 months 2-36 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
1-2 years 2-128 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
3-8 years 2-149 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
9-12 years 2-183 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
12-18 years male 20-370 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
> 12 years female 20-320 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine


Premenopausal Females 4-64 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine


Males:
18-29 years 12-99 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
30-59 years 9-60 nmol BCE/mmol creatinine
N-acetylaspartate quantitationMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
NMO/AQP-4 Antibody, IgGNMO< 1.6 U/mL
NPM1 Exon 12 Mutations, QualitativeNPM1Negative
Natural Killer Cells, Functional (New test)NKCF7-125 LU30
Neisseria gonorrhoeae CultureP128No Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia - Parental evaluationMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Neonatal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia-Fetal evaluationMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Neonatal ScreenNNEO Acylcarnitine profile:
FC 12-220 µmol/L
FC/(C16+C18) ratio 0-100
C-2 5-85 µmol/L
C-3 0-6.5 µmol/L
CO3/CO2 ratio 0.025
C-3DC 0-0.3 µmol/L
C-4 0-1.8 µmol/L
C-4DC 0-2.6 µmol/L
C-5 0-1.2 µmol/L
C5:1 0-0.4 µmol/L
C-5OH 0-1.2 µmol/L
C-5DC 0-0.35 µmol/L
C-6 0-0.7 µmol/L
C-8 0-0.5 µmol/L
CO8/C10 ratio Not given
C-8.1 0-0.9 µmol/L
C-10 0-0.6 µmol/L
C10:1 0-0.45 µmol/L
C-12 0-2 µmol/L
C-12:1 Not given
C-14 0-1.1 µmol/L
C14:1 0-0.8 µmol/L
C14:1/C12:1 ratio Not given
C-14OH 0-0.4 µmol/L
C-16 0-10 µmol/L
C-16:1 0-1.2 µmol/L
C-16OH 0-0.3 µmol/L
C-18 0-3.5 µmol/L
C-18:1 0-4 µmol/L
C-18:2 Not given
C-18OH 0-0.4 µmol/L
C18:1OH 0-0.35 µmol/L


Amino acids:
Glycine Not given
Alanine 0-900 µmol/L
Valine Not given
Leucine/Isoleucine 0-200 µmol/L
Leucine/Alanine ratio 0-1.5
Phenylalanine 0-140 µmol/L
Phenylalanine/Tyrosine ratio 0-2.3
Tyrosine 0-700 µmol/L
Methionine 0-100 µmol/L
Citrulline 0-90 µmol/L
Citrulline/Arginine ratio Not given
Ornithine 0-500 µmol/L
Ornithine/Citrulline ratio Not given
Arginine 0-200 µmol/L
Arginine/Ornithine ratio Not given
Proline 0-100 µmol/L
5-Oxoproline Not given


Other analytes:
Immunoreactive trypsinogen < 62 ng/mL
Biotinidase > 10 ERU
Gal-1-Uridyl Transferase > 50 enzyme units
TSH 0-25 mIU/L
17 Hydroxyprogesterone < 180 nmol/L
T-cell Receptor Excision Circle (TREC) > 25 copies/µL
Neuron Specific Enolase, CSFNSECSF
Normal <20 ng/mL
Mildly elevated 20-35 ng/mL
Indicative of CJD >35 ng/ml
Neuron Specific Enolase, serumNSE
Age Normal range
Newborn 4.8-19.5 µg/L
12-17 years ≤ 12.0 µg/L
≥ 18 year olds < 8.6 µg/L
Neutrophil AntibodiesNEUABNone detected
Neutrophil Cytoplasmic AntibodiesANCA Myeloperoxidase Antibody (MPO) and Proteinase-3 Antibody (PR3)
:
Negative < 21 Units
Weak positive 21-30 Units
Moderate to strong positive > 30 Units
Neutrophil Oxidative IndexNOI
Nicotine and Cotinine, urine NICUR Nicotine:
Smokers 200-700 ng/mL
Non-Smokers ≤ 17 ng/mL


Cotinine:
Smokers 300-1300 ng/mL
Non-Smokers ≤ 20 ng/mL
Nonsyndromic DeafnessCNXNMutations not detected
Norovirus RNAP319Not detected
NortriptylineNRT
Therapeutic 50-150 µg/L
Potentially toxic > 500 µg/L
Nucleated Bone Marrow Cell CountBMNCAnticoagulated bone marrow sample (usually heparinized and submitted in a Red top)
Nucleated red cellsNRBCB
At birth < 10 per 100 WBC
24 hours < 5 per 100 WBC
48 hours < 1 per 100 WBC
96 hours None
O.D. 450 Peak, DeltaOD45 Method of Freda:
1+ Normal or possibly affected < 0.20
2+ Affected but not in jeopardy within 7 days 0.20-0.34
3+ Distressed and probably in failure 0.35-0.70
4+ Impending fetal death > 0.70


Method of Liley:
Week of gestation Normal Borderline
25 < 0.08 0.08-0.33
30 < 0.05 0.05-0.21
35 < 0.03 0.03-0.13
40 < 0.02 0.02-0.08
OR Coagulation Panel 1ORCO
OR Coagulation Panel with TEGORCO2
Oligoclonal Bands, CSF (Includes serum testing)OLIGNegative (No bands)
OligosaccharidesOSTLC
Onchocerca volvulusP412
Opiate confirmation, urineOPICONNot detected
Opiates Screen, UrineOPINegative

Note: a negative result indicates that this class of drugs is not present, or they are present at a concentration below the cut-off concentration of 300 µg/L
Organic Acids, QualitativeOAXNegative
Orotic Acid, UrineOROT< 4.4 mmol/mol creatinine
Osmolality, serumOSM283-301 mmol/kg
Osmolality, stoolOSMST
Osmolality, urineOSMU300-900 mmol/kg
OsteocalcinOCAL
5-9 years 47-142 ng/mL
10-13 years 49-167 ng/mL
14-17 year old males 26-203 ng/mL
14-17 year old females 14-85 ng/mL
Males > 17 years 9-38 ng/mL
Females > 17 years 8-32 ng/mL

Ova and Parasite ExamP401Negative
OxacarbazepineOXCBP
Therapeutic 8.0-35.0 mcg/mL
Toxic > 35.0 mcg/mL
Lower Detection limit 0.5 mcg/mL

Oxalic acid, 24 hour urineOXAU3.6-38 mg/24 h
Oxalic acid, plasmaOXALP< 1.8 µmol/L
Oxalic acid, random urineOXALR
Male 3-30 mg/g Creatinine
Female 3-40 mg/g Creatinine
Oxycodone Confirmation, urine OXYCU
Oxycodone screen, urine OXYUNegative

(Note: a negative result indicates that oxycodone is not present, or it is present at a concentration below the cut-off concentration of 100 µg/L)
PML-RARA Translocation QuantitativePMLQNTNo PML-RARA bcr1, bcr2 or bcr3 fusion transcripts
PML-RARA, QualitativePMLRNo PML-RARA bcr1, bcr2 or bcr3 fusion transcripts
PML/RARA (15;17) translocation FISHTR1517Not detected
PMP22 Gene FISHMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Two copies
POCT Activated Clotting Time Testing is used to monitor anticoagulation during invasive procedures. ACT levels during anticoagulation are compared to patient baseline values.

Cartridge Normal range
LR cartridge 99-187 sec
Plus (+) cartridge 98-139 sec


See Additional Information for reportable ranges and heparin ranges appropriate for each cartridge.
POCT Blood Gases & ElectrolytesEG7P
Analyte Ages Arterial Venous
pH All 7.35-7.45 7.31-7.41
pCO2 < 1 year 27-41 mmHg 41-51 mmHg
≥ 1 year 32-48 mmHg 41-51 mmHg
pO2 < 30 days 80-100 mmHg 35-40 mmHg
≥ 30 days 83-108 mmHg 35-40 mmHg
Na+ All 136-146 mmol/L 136-146 mmol/L
K+ ≤ 1 year 3.0-5.4 mmol/L 3.0-5.4 mmol/L
> 1 year 3.4-4.5 mmol/L 3.4-4.5 mmol/L
iCa++ < 6 mo. 0.95-1.50 mmol/L 0.95-1.50 mmol/L
≥ 6 mo. 1.15-1.29 mmol/L 1.15-1.29 mmol/L
HCO3- All 22-27 mmol/L
Base Excess All -2 to +2
O2 Sat. All 95-99%
POCT ColoscreenNegative
POCT Creatinine with eGFRCREG Creatinine
Age Male & Female
≥ 19 years 0.6-1.3 mg/dL


eGFR
Age Male & Female
< 18 years > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2
≥ 18 years > 60 mL/min/1.73 m2
POCT Gastric Occult BloodNegative
POCT Glucose, FingerstickGLUPOC
Neonate 55-115 mg/dL
Adult & Pediatric 70-199 mg/dL


See Additional information for information on interferences with POCT glucose determinations
POCT HIV 1/2 Rapid Antibody Screen Negative
POCT Hemoglobin
0-7 days 14.5-22.5 g/dL
8-14 days 13.5-21.5 g/dL
2-4 weeks 12.5-20.5 g/dL
1-2 months 10.0-18.0 g/dL
2-3 months 9.0-14.0 g/dL
3-6 os 9.5-13.5 g/dL
6-24 months 11.0-13.5 g/dL
2-5 years 11.2-13.5 g/dL
5-8 years 11.4-15.5 g/dL
8-12 years 11.6-15.5 g/dL
Male 12-15 years 12.3-16.0 g/dL
Male 15-18 years 12.6 -17.0 g/dL
Male > 18 years 13.6-17.5 g/dL
Female 12-15 years 11.8-15.5 g/dL
Female > 15 years 12.0-15.5 g/dL
POCT Hemoglobin A1c4.2-6.0%
POCT Influenza VirusNegative
POCT Lipid Testing Total cholesterol:
Children and Adolescents (< 20 y/o):
Acceptable < 170 mg/dL
Borderline 170-199 mg/dL
High > 199 mg/dL


Adults (≥ 20 y/o):
Desirable < 200 mg/dL
Borderline 200-239 mg/dL
High > 239 mg/dL


HDL Cholesterol:
Acceptable > 39 mg/dL
Higher risk < 40 mg/dL
Lower risk > 59 mg/dL


Triglycerides:
Desirable < 150 mg/dL
Borderline high 150-199 mg/dL
High 200-499 mg/dL
Very high ≥ 500 mg/dL


LDL cholesterol:
Children and Adolescents (< 20 y/o): Acceptable < 110 mg/dL
Borderline high 110-129 mg/dL
High > 129 mg/dL


Adults: (≥ 20 y/o):
Optimal < 100 mg/dL
Near or above optimal 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high-risk 130-159 mg/dL
High-risk 160-189 mg/dL
Very high-risk > 189 mg/dL
POCT Microalbumin Urinalysis Dipstick
Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio <30 mg/g creatinine
POCT Multistix 10SG Urinalysis Dipstick
Protein Negative
Glucose Negative
Ketones Negative
Bilirubin Negative
Hemoglobin (Myoglobin) Negative
Nitrite Negative
Leukocyte Esterase Negative
pH 4.5-8.0
Specific Gravity 1.002-1.030
Urobilinogen ≤ 1.0 mg/dL
POCT Multistix 9SG Urinalysis dipstick
Protein Negative
Glucose Negative
Ketones Negative
Bilirubin Negative
Hemoglobin (Myoglobin) Negative
Nitrite Negative
Leukocyte Esterase Negative
pH 4.5-8.0
Specific Gravity 1.002-1.030
POCT Prothrombin Time, Fingerstick
Normal (untreated) 0.9-1.2
POCT Respiratory Syncytial Virus antigenNegative
POCT Streptococcus Group A AntigenNegative
POCT Urine Pregnancy ≥ 18 years oldNegative (non-pregnant)
POCT Urine Pregnancy < 18 years oldNegative (non-pregnant)
POCT iStat CG8 CG8
pH Arterial 7.35-7.45
Venous 7.31-7.41
pCO2 Arterial < 1 year 27-41 mmHg
Arterial > 1 year 32-48 mmHg
Venous 41-51 mmHg
pO2 Arterial < 30 days 80-100 mmHg
Arterial > 30 days 83-108 mmHg
Venous 35-40 mmHg
Na+ 136-146 mmol/L
K+ ≤ 1 year 3.0-5.4 mmol/L
> 1 year 3.4-4.5 mmol/L
Ca++ < 6 months 0.95-1.50 mmol/L
≥ 6 months 1.15-1.29 mmol/L
Glucose Neonate 55-115 mg/dL
Pediatric/Adult 70-199 mg/dL
Lactate 0.0-2.0 mmol/L
Hct Adult male 41-53%
Adult female 36-46%
HCO3- Arterial 22-27 mmol/L
Base Excess Arterial -2 to +2
O2 Sat Arterial 95-99%
POCT pH, fluid Results are reported in pH units as indicated from the color reaction of the paper. The colors below are descriptive only. The paper must be read against the pH color chart in the dispenser

Color Approx. pH
Yellow 4.5
Yellow-Green 5.0
Citrus Green 5.5
Apple Green 6.0
Green 6.5
Forest Green 7.0
Zucchinni Green 7.5
Midnight Blue Teal 8.0
Dark Midnight Blue 8.5



For vaginal fluid a pH > 6 indicates the presence of amniotic fluid and possible rupture of membranes.
PTEN Deletion by FISHNormal Range: Ratio >0.8 (no deletion of PTEN); Signals >1.6 (no loss of chromosome 10)
Pain Management PanelPMPUNegative

See Additional Information for confirmatory testing on positive samples
Pancreatic ElastaseELAS
Normal > 200 µg/g stool
Slight to Moderate insufficiency 100-200 µg/g stool
Severe insufficiency < 100 µg/g stool
Pancreatic PolypeptidePPEP
Age Reference Range
< 3 years Not established
3-9 years ≤ 519 pg/mL
10-13 years ≤ 361 pg/mL
14-17 years ≤ 297 pg/mL
18-29 years < 480 pg/mL
30-39 years 70-400 pg/mL
40-49 years 70-430 pg/mL
60-52 years 100-780 pg/mL
Para-Aminobenzoic AcidMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)> 250 mg (50%) excretion
Paracoccidioides SerologyMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Paragonimus AntibodyMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Paragonimus westermaniP412 (for respiratory specimens) or P401 (for stool)
Parainfluenza AntibodiesPFL1
Negative < 1:8 titer
Paraneoplastic Antibody Evaluation, CSF PAECSF
Antibody Titer
Antineuronal Nuclear Antibody-Type 1 (ANNA-1) Negative at <1:2
Antineuronal Nuclear Antibody-Type 2 (ANNA-2) Negative at <1:2
Antineuronal Nuclear Antibody-Type 3 (ANNA-3) Negative at <1:2
Anti-Glial/Neuronal Nuclear Antibody, Type 1 (AGNA-1) Negative at <1:2
Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Antibody, Type 1 (PCA-1) Negative at <1:2
Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Antibody, Type 2 (PCA-2) Negative at <1:2
Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Antibody, Type Tr (PCA-Tr) Negative at <1:2
Amphiphysin Antibody Negative at <1:2
CRMP-5-IgG Negative at <1:2


Note: Titers lower than 1:2 are detectable by recombinant CRMP-5 Western blot analysis. CRMP-5 Western blot analysis will be done on request on stored spinal fluid (held 4 weeks). This supplemental testing is recommended in cases of chorea, vision loss, cranial neuropathy, and myelopathy. Call the Neuroimmunology Laboratory at 800-533-1710 or 507-266-5700 to request CRMP-5 Western blot.
Paraneoplastic Antibody Evaluation, Serum PAE
Antibody Titer
Antineuronal Nuclear Antibody-Type 1 (ANNA-1) <1:240

Antineuronal Nuclear Antibody -Type 2 (ANNA-2) <1:240
Antineuronal Nuclear Antibody -Type 3 (ANNA-3) <1:240
Anti-Glial/Neuronal Nuclear Antibody-Type 1 (AGNA-1) <1:240
Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Antibody, Type 1 (PCA-1) <1:240
Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Antibody, Type 2 (PCA-2) <1:240
Purkinje Cell Cytoplasmic Antibody, Type Tr (PCA-Tr) <1:240
Amphiphysin Antibody <1:240
CRMP-5-IgG <1:240*
Striational (Striated Muscle) Antibodies <1:60
N-Type Calcium Channel Antibody ≤ 0.03 nmol/L
P/Q-Type Calcium Channel Antibody ≤ 0.02 nmol/L
ACh Receptor (Muscle) Binding Antibody ≤ 0.02 nmol/L
AChR Ganglionic Neuronal Antibody ≤ 0.02 nmol/L
Neuronal VGKC Autoantibody ≤ 0.02 nmol/L


*Note: Titers lower than 1:240 are detectable by recombinant CRMP-5 Western blot analysis. CRMP-5 Western blot analysis will be done on request on stored serum (held 4 weeks). This supplemental testing is recommended in cases of chorea, vision loss, cranial neuropathy, and myelopathy. Call the Neuroimmunology Laboratory at 800-533-1710 or 507-266-5700 to request CRMP-5 Western blot.

Neuron-restricted patterns of IgG staining that do not fulfill criteria for amphiphysin, ANNA-1, ANNA-2, ANNA-3, AGNA-1, PCA-1, PCA-2, PCA-Tr, or CRMP-5-IgG may be reported as "unclassified antineuronal IgG." Complex patterns that include non-neuronal elements may be reported as "uninterpretable."
Parasite cultureP406Negative
Parasite identificationP404
Parasites, Duodenal and Colonic / Stool AspiratesP401Negative
Parasites, Hepatic Abscess AspirateP401
Parasites, Rectal or Bladder BiopsyP412
Parasites, RespiratoryWet Mount (P412), Coccidia Exam (P407), Microsporidium Stain (P414), Intracellular Parasite Stain (P403) Negative
Parasites, Skin biopsyP406
Parasites, UrineP412
Parasites, blood
Parathormone Related ProteinPTHRP< 2.0 pmol/L
Parathormone, Body fluid (FNA)PTHB
Parathormone, IntraoperativePTHPR (Pre) & PTHPO (post)
Parathormone, Post-Surgical 12 - 65 ng/mL
Parathormone, intactPTH (PTHI for additional samples)12-65 ng/L
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Cell MarkersPNHM
Normal ≤ 3% WBC's & RBC's are CD59-
Parvovirus B19 AntibodiesPB19
Negative < 0.9 index
Equivocal 0.9-1.1 index
Positive > 1.1 index
Parvovirus B19 DNAP338Not detected
PentobarbitalPENT
Therapeutic 1.0-5.0 mg/L
Potentially toxic > 10 mg/L
Peripheral Blood Culture P060No growth
PhenobarbitalPBAR Therapeutic levels:
0-17 years 15-40 mg/L
≥ 18 years 10-40 mg/L


Therapeutic ranges adopted or modified from the literature based on recommendations of UCSF Pharmacists
PhenylalaninePALA
≤ 30 days 30-79 µmol/L
31 days-23 months 31-92 µmol/L
2-18 years 38-86 µmol/L
> 18 years 40-74 µmol/L
Phenytoin, FreePHNYF
Therapeutic 1.0-2.0 µg/mL
Potentially toxic > 3.0 µg/mL
Phenytoin, totalPHNY
Therapeutic: 10-20 mg/L


Source: Phenytoin: Drug information, Copyright 1978-2012 Lexicomp, Inc. Accessed in UpToDate, August 2012

Therapeutic ranges adopted or modified from the literature based on recommendations of UCSF Pharmacists
PhosphatidylglycerolPGAG
Present Mature
PhospholipidsPLIP151-264 mg/dL
Phosphorus, 24 hour (or timed) urinePO4U400-1300 mg/D
Phosphorus, Serum / PlasmaPO4
< 1 month 3.9-7.7 mg/dL
1 month - 11 months 3.5-6.6 mg/dL
1 year - 3 years 3.1-6.0 mg/dL
4 years - 12 years 3.0-5.7 mg/dL
13 years - 15 years 2.9-5.1 mg/dL
≥ 16 years 2.6-4.9 mg/dL


1. Normal range for pediatric patients adapted from Soldin, Steven J., "Pediatric Reference Ranges", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 1.
2. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.

Phosphorus, random urinePO4UR
Pinworm ExaminationP405Negative
Pipecolic AcidMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Plasma Free HemoglobinPHGBS< 8 mg/dL
Plasma Renin ActivityREN0.25-5.82 ng/mL/hour

Pediatric ranges have not been established for this assay. Please see 'Additional Information'
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor - 1 antigenPAI1AG4-43 ng/mL
Plasminogen ActivityPLMA65-176%
Plasminogen AntigenPLMI8-14 mg/dL
Platelet AggregationAGGR
Platelet Antigen TypingMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Platelet CountPLT, CBC , CBCD, PLTM140-450 x109/L
Platelet CrossmatchMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Compatible with ALL donors tested
Platelet Function Analysis (PFA-100)PFA100 Closure times:
Collagen/Epinephrine 84-184 sec
Collagen/ADP 58-112 sec
Platelet Glycoprotein AntibodyPGABNegative
Pm-Scl AntibodyPMSCLNegative
Pneumococcal IgG Antibodies (14 serotypes)APN14See additional Information
Pneumococcal IgG Antibodies (23 serotypes)APN23See additional information
Pneumococcal IgG Antibodies (6 serotypes)APN6See additional information
Pneumocystis carinii stain
Poliovirus AntibodiesPOLIONegative titer < 8
Porphobilinogen deaminase, RBCUPGS
Normal >6.9 nmol/L/sec
Indeterminate 6.0-6.9 nmol/L/sec
Decreased <6.0 nmol/L/sec
Porphobilinogen, Quantitative, 24 hour urinePBQT24< 2.8 mg/d
Porphobilinogen, Quantitative, random urinePBQTR
1-8 years 0.9-2.8 mg/g creatinine
9-17 years 0.5-2.0 mg/g creatinine
≥ 18 years ≤ 1.5 mg/g creatinine
Porphyrins Evaluation, RBCEPQTS< 80 µg/dL
Porphyrins, Fractionated, Fecal
MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Octacarboxyporphyrins (Uroporphyrins) < 80 µg/d
Heptacarboxyporphyrins < 20 µg/d
Tetracarboxyporphyrins (Coproporphyrins) < 640 µg/d
Dicarboxyporphyrins (Protoporphyrins) < 1830 µg/d
Porphyrins, Fractionated, UrinePORFU
Tetracarboxylporphyrins (Coproporphyrins) ≤ 155 µg/d
Pentacarboxylporphyrins ≤ 4.7 µg/d
Hexacarboxylporphyrins ≤ 0.9 µg/d
Heptacarboxylporphyrins ≤ 6.8 µg/d
Octacarboxylporphyrins (Uroporphyrins) 3.3-29.5 µg/d
Total porphyrins 12-190 µg/d
Porphyrins, fractionated, random urinePORFUR Uroporphyrin:
1-10 years 4.3-16.2 mcg/g creatinine
11-17 years 4.6-18.9 mcg/g creatinine
≥ 18 years 22.0 or less mcg/g creatinine

Heptacarboxyporphyrin:
≥ 1 year 4.6 or less mcg/g creatinine

Hexacarboxyporphyrin:
≥ 1 year: NOT DETECTED
Pentacarboxyporphyrin:
1-10 years 3.2 or less mcg/g creatinine
11-17 years 3.0 or less mcg/g creatinine
≥ 18 years 1.7 or less mcg/g creatinine

Coproporphyrin:
1-10 years 10.1-254.7 mcg/g creatinine
11-17 years 11.8-107.2 mcg/g creatinine
≥ 18 years 23.0-130.0 mcg/g creatinine

Total Porphyrins:
1-10 years 17.0-269.7 mcg/g creatinine
11-17 years 16.4-121.5 mcg/g creatinine
≥ 18 years 31.0-139.0 mcg/g creatinine
PosaconazolePSCA
Single 200 mg dose, fasting 0.05 – 0.27 mcg/mL
Single 200 mg dose high fat diet 0.24 – 1.02 mcg/mL
Steady state, 200 mg TID 0.02 – 3.65 mcg/mL
Post-Transfusion PurpuraMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Post-Transfusion StudyTRXN
Potassium, 24 hour (or timed) urineKUR25-125 mmol/D
Potassium, Body FluidKBF
Potassium, Serum / PlasmaK
< 1 year 3.2-6.0 mmol/L
> 1 year 3.8-5.1 mmol/L


1. Normal range for infants 0 to <1 year adopted from Soldin, Steven J., "Pediatric Reference Intervals", 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007, method 4.
2. Adult range used for children >1 year old.
3. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Potassium, StoolKST
Potassium, random urineKUVaries with diet, typically > 20 mmol/d
Potassium, whole blood (MtZ Only)KSB
≤ 1 year 3.0-5.4 mmol/L
> 1 year 3.4-4.5 mmol/L
Prader-Willi/Angelman SyndromesPWANegative
Pre-Surgical Type & ScreenBB14
Pre-Transplant Infectious Disease Screen-for organ, tissue and stem cell recipientsBMID
PrealbuminPAB20-37 mg/dL
PregnanetriolPRTL
Males 71-1000 µg/24 hours
Females 47-790 µg/24 hours

PrimidonePRIMPrimidone:
Therapeutic: 5-15 mg/L
Potentially toxic: > 15 mg/L

Phenobarbital:
15.0-40.0 mg/L
ProcainamidePNAPA
Therapeutic 4.0-8.0 mg/L
Potentially toxic > 16.0 mg/L
NAPA < 30.0 mg/L
ProgesteronePROG
≥ 18 year old males 0.34-1.70 µg/L


Menstruating females:
Follicular phase 0.15-1.40 µg/L
Luteal phase 3.34-25.56 µg/L
Mid-Luteal phase 4.44-28.03 µg/L


Postmenopausal < 0.73 µg/L


Pregnant females:
First trimester 11.22-90.00 µg/L
Second trimester 25.55-89.40 µg/L
Third trimester 48.40-422.50 µg/L
Progesterone, PediatricNPROG Males:
5-9 years ≤ 0.7 ng/mL
10-13 years ≤ 1.2 ng/mL
14-17 years ≤ 0.8 ng/mL
18-29 years ≤ 0.3 ng/mL
30-39 years ≤ 0.2 ng/mL
40-49 years ≤ 0.2 ng/mL
50-59 years ≤ 0.2 ng/mL


Females:
5-9 years 0.6 ng/mL
10-13 years 10.2 ng/mL
14-17 years 11.9 ng/mL
Early Follicular Phase ≤ 0.6 ng/mL
Late Follicular Phase ≤ 2.7 ng/mL
Mid-Cycle Phase ≤ 16.1 ng/mL
Luteal Phase ≤ 3.0-31.4 ng/mL
Postmenopausal Women ≤ 0.2 ng/mL
ProinsulinPROINS3 - 20 pmol/L
ProlactinPROL
≥ 18 year old males 2.1-17.7 µg/L
Females 2.8-29.2 µg/L
Pregnant 9.7-208.5 µg/L
Postmenopausal 1.8-20.3 µg/L
Prolactin-Insulin Stimulation Test
Post-Stimulation peak ≥ 2x basal
Prolactin-TRH Stimulation Test
Post-Stimulation peak ≥ 2x basal
Prostate Specific Antigen, FreeFPSASee Additional Information
Prostate Specific Antigen, TotalPSAS, PRSAMales 40 years of age and above: <4.00 ug/L.

Vendor reference range verified in-house by running 75 random male samples 40 years of age and older collected from outpatient settings.

See also 'Additional Information'
Prostatic Acid PhosphataseACPP< 2.8 ng/mL
Protein C, ActivityPRC
Infant 0-6 months Not determined (See Additional information)
Child 6 months - 16 years Not determined (See Additional information)
> 16 years 76-146%
Protein C, AntigenPRCI
0-1 day 17-53%
2-5 days 20-64%
6-30 days 21-65%
31-90 days 28-80%
91-180 days 37-81%


≥ 18 year olds 70-140%
Protein Electrophoresis, serumPE
Age Albumin Alpha-1 Alpha-2 Beta Gamma
0-1 mo 2.9-5.5 0.1-0.3 0.2-0.6 0.3-0.6 0.6-1.2
1 mo-1 yr 2.8-5.0 0.1-0.3 0.3-0.7 0.3-0.7 0.2-0.7
1-4 yrs 3.9-5.1 0.1-0.3 0.5-1.1 0.4-1.0 0.2-0.9
4-18 yrs 3.8-5.4 0.1-0.3 0.4-1.0 0.3-1.2 0.4-1.4
>18 yrs 3.1-5.4 0.1-0.3 0.4+1.2 0.6-1.2 0.6-1.6
Protein Electrophoresis, urinePEU
Protein S ActivityPSACT Age
Newborn - Day 4 12-60%
Day 5 - 1 Month 22-78%
1 Month - 3 Months 33-93%
3 Months - 6 Months 54-118%
> 6 Months 70-119%
Protein S, freePRSI
0-6 month old Not established (see Additional information)
> 6 mo 53-137%
Protein, Total, 24 hour (or timed) urineTPU< 160 mg/D
Protein, Total, Body FluidTPBF
Transudate < 2.0 g/dL
Protein, Total, CSFTPCF15-50 mg/dL
Protein, Total, Serum / PlasmaTP
< 1 year 4.3 – 6.9 g/dL
1 year - 2 years 5.2-7.4 g/dL
3 years - 5 years 5.6-7.7 g/dL
6 years- 9 years 6.5-8.3 g/dL
≥ 10 years 6.0-8.1 g/dL



Normal range for children less than 10 years old adopted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345.

Normal range for adults: low end of 6.0 determined by testing 271 normal male and female UCSF blood donors and referenced by Beckman as the low end of adult recumbent patients. High end of 8.1 adapted from Beckman Synchron's ambulatory upper limit.

Adult range used for children 10-18 years old. Adult range comparable to Beckman's range for age group 10-19 years (Bulletin 9345).
Protein, Total, random urineTPCUR< 0.16 mg/mg creatinine
Prothrombin (20210) mutationPTTRNegative
Prothrombin TimePT
PT 11.8-15.2 seconds
INR 0.9-1.2


The PT of full-term normal infants does not appear to differ significantly from adults, although factor levels are somewhat lower in the first six months of life (Andrew, M et al. Development of the human coagulation system in the full-term infant. Blood. 70:165-172).
Prothrombin fragment 1+2PROF41-372 pmol/L
Pteridine ProfileMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above) Normals:

Age Biopterin Neopterin %Biopterin mmol/mol creat mmol/mol creat
0-2 months 0.46-1.17 1.02-4.46 20-41
4 months -13 years 0.78-2.68 0.40-1.33 49-74


Dihydropteridine Reductase activity (nmol/min/spot) 1.96-7.51


Phenylketonuria:

Age Biopterin Neopterin %Biopterin mmol/mol creat mmol/mol creat
0-4 months 2.03-10.3 2.06-15.5 19-65
8 months -18 years 0.85-4.23 0.31-1.59 60-83


From: Nederwieser A et al. 1980. Acta Helv Paediat. 25;335 and Blau, N. 1988. Ann REv Nutr. 8;185
Pyruvate Kinase, RBCMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)6.7 - 14.3 U/g of hemoglobin
Pyruvate, CSFPYRUC0.50-1.70 mg/dL
Pyruvate, plasma
Important: Read Collection Instructions BEFORE obtaining samples.
PYRU0.30 - 1.50 mg/dL
QuantiFERON Gold TBQNTFPNot detected
Quantitative Amino Acids, PlasmaAMACP
Phosphatidyl Serine 0 - 5 nmol/mL
Taurine 35 - 120 nmol/mL
Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine 0 - 30 nmol/mL
Aspartate 3 - 20 nmol/mL
Threonine 75 - 200 nmol/mL
Serine 65 - 200 nmol/mL
Asparagine 29 - 90 nmol/mL
Glutamate 380 - 750 nmol/mL
Glutamine 380 - 750 nmol/mL
Sarcosine Not established
Alpha Amino Adipate Not established
Glycine 130 - 450 nmol/mL
Alanine 140 - 480 nmol/mL
Citrulline 10 - 40 nmol/mL
Alpha Amino-N-Butyrate 4 - 40 nmol/mL
Valine 110-300 nmol/mL
Cystine 17 - 70 nmol/mL
Methionine 9- 35 nmol/mL
Cystathionine Not established
Isoleucine 35 - 100 nmol/mL
Leucine 65 - 180 nmol/mL
Tyrosine 35 - 90 nmol/mL
Phenylalanine 35 -120 nmol/mL
Beta Alanine Not established
Beta Amino Isobutyrate 0 - 5 nmol/mL
Gamma Amino Butyrate Not established
Homocysteine Not established
Ethanolamine 0 - 15 nmol/mL
Tryptophan 34 - 82 nmol/mL
Hydroxylisine 0 - 10 nmol/mL
Ornithine 30 - 120 nmol/mL
Lysine 80 - 250 nmol/mL
1-Met-Histidine 0 - 10 nmol/mL
Histidine Not established
3-Met-Histidine Not established
Anserine Not established
Carnosine Not established
Arginine 38 - 130 nmol/mL
Hydroxyproline 0 - 10 nmol/mL
Proline 85 - 350 nmol/mL
Alloisoleucine Not established
Arginosuccinic acid Not established
Quantitative Amino Acids, Plasma (to Stanford, see Utilization Guidelines)AAQTSSee report
QuinidineQUIND
Therapeutic 2.0-5.0 mg/L
RBC Associated Drug AntibodiesDRBCNegative
RBC CountCBC, CBCD, RBC
Age Count
0-7 days 4.0-6.6 x1012/L
8-14 days 3.9-6.3 x1012/L
2-4 weeks 3.6-6.2 x1012/L
1-2 months 3.0-5.4 x1012/L
2-3 months 2.7-4.9 x1012/L
3-6 months 3.1-4.5 x1012/L
6-24 months 3.7-4.7 x1012/L
2-6 years 3.9-4.9 x1012/L
6-12 years 4.0-5.0 x1012/L
Male 12-18 years 4.2-5.6 x1012/L
Male >18 years 4.4-5.9 x1012/L
Female >12 years 4.0-5.2 x1012/L
RET Proto-oncogeneRETPONo mutations detected
RNA Polymerase III AntibodyRNAP< 20 Units
Rabies Vaccine ResponseRABETA result ≥ 0.1 IU/mL is considered acceptable per ACIP.
Rabies, Antibody, Post-exposure immunizationRAB
Negative < 8
Protective ≥ 8
Rabies, Antigen (DFA) & CultureMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Rapid Herpes simplex virus DNA, CSF (New test)P357Not detected
Rapid Influenza A / B / RSVP352Not detected
Rapid Plasma ReaginRPRN, RPRNO, RPR, RPRONon-reactive
Red cell IndicesCBC, CBCD
Age MCV MCH MCHC
0-7 days 95-121 fL 31-37 pg 29-37 g/dL
1-2 weeks 88-120 fL 28-40 pg 28-38 g/dL
2-4 weeks 86-118 fL 28-40 pg 28-38 g/dL
1-2 months 85-117 fL 28-40 pg 29-37 g/dL
2-3 months 77-115 fL 26-34 pg 29-37 g/dL
3-6 months 74-108 fL 25-34 pg 30-36 g/dL
6-24 months 70-86 fL 23-31 pg 30-36 g/dL
2-6 years 75-87 fL 24-30 pg 31-36 g/dL
6-12 years 77-95 fL 25-33 pg 31-36 g/dL
12-18 years 78-98 fL 25-34 pg 31-36 g/dL
18+ years 80-100 fL 26-34 pg 31-36 g/dL
Red cell PhenotypePHEN
Reducing Substances, stoolRSST< 500 mg/dL
Reducing Substances, urineRSUUNegative
Relapsing FeverP409Negative
Reptilase TimeREPT15-19 seconds
Respiratory Syncytial Virus AntibodyRSV
Negative < 8 titer
Respiratory Virus PCR PanelP350Not detected
Reticulocyte CountRET
Age Male Female
≤ 4 days 65-230 x109/L 65-230 x109/L
5-30 days 17-114 x109/L 17-86 x109/L
31-60 days 30-129 x109/L 52-112 x109/L
61-180 days 36-127 x109/L 44-116 x109/L
6 months - 2 years 36-91 x109/L 40-90 x109/L
2 years - < 6 years 35-89 x109/L 35-93 x109/L
6 years - < 12 years 31-98 x109/L 35-124 x109/L
12 years - <18 years 38-104 x109/L 35-97 x109/L
≥ 18 years 29.0-121.4 x109/L 25.6-96.9 x109/L


The ranges 5 days to <18 years have been extrapolated from the following reference: Steven J. Soldin, Carlo Brugnara, et al. Pediatric reference ranges, 2nd ed. Washington, DC: AACC Press, 1997
Rh PhenotypingRHGT
Rh onlyRH
Rheumatoid Factor, serumRF< 40 IU/mL
Ribosomal P Antibody RIBP< 1.0 AI
Rickettsial Antibody Panel (New test)RICKNot detected
Ristocetin AggregationRIST
Ristocetin Cofactor ActivityRCOF42-191%
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Antibodies (IgG & IgM)MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Rotavirus AntigenP333Negative
Rubella Antibody, IgGRUBI
NEG Non-Immune
POS Immune
Rubella CultureP319
Russell's Viper Venom TestRVVTM
RVVT 29.0 - 44.0 seconds
RVVT Inhibitor Ratio 0.91 - 1.10
Phospholipid Confirmatory Ratio 0.90 - 1.26


See 'Additional Information' for interpretation of negative RVVT results.
SNP Array for Prenatal Analysis (New test)SNPAP
SNP Array for Tissue and POC (New test)SNPAT
SS18 FISH<10%
Saccharomyces cerevisiae AntibodyMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
SalicylateSAL
Therapeutic 10-30 mg/dL
Schistosoma Ab, CSF (IgG)SCHIST
Negative <1.0
Schistosoma AntibodiesSCHISS< 1.00 = Antibody not detected
Schistosoma species
Stool P401
Urine P412
Tissue P404
Negative
Scl-70 AntibodySCL70
Negative ≤ 0.8 index
Positive > 0.8 index
Second Trimester ScreenSTS
Sedimentation RateESR
Male 0-10 mm/h
Female 0-15 mm/h
Selenium, plasmaSE
< 2 years 16-71 µg/L
2-3 years 40-103 µg/L
4-16 years 55-134 µg/L
> 16 years 63-160 µg/L
Selenium, urineSELRU
Selenium ≤ 200 µg/L
Corrected for Creatinine < 25 µg/g Creatinine
Semen AnalysisSEMN
Volume > 2.0 mL
Viscosity Normal
Sperm Count > 20 x109/L
Motility at 1 hour > 50%
Morphology > 30% normal oval, Round: < 4/HPF
Liquifaction Complete
Agglutination None
SerotoninSERO
≥ 18 year olds 55-260 µg/L
Serotonin Release AssaySRAUNegative
Serum Preparation & StorageILSPS
Serum ViscosityVISCO1.4-1.8
Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromeP319
Sex Hormone-Binding GlobulinSHBG
1 mo-2 years 60-252 nmol/L
1-8 years 72-220 nmol/L
Pubertal males 16-100 nmol/L
Pubertal females 36-125 nmol/L
≥ 18 year old males 20-60 nmol/L
≥ 18 year old females 40-120 nmol/L
Postmenopausal females 28-112 nmol/L
Shiga Toxin AssayP315Not detected
Sialic AcidMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
SirolimusSIRO
Therapeutic trough 5 - 15 µg/L
Sjogren's AntibodiesSSAB anti-SSA and anti-SSB:

Negative < 20 Units
Weak Positive 20-39 Units Index
Moderate Positive 40-80 Units
Stron Positive > 80 Units
Smooth Muscle AntibodiesASMANegative titer < 40
Sodium, 24 hour (or timed) urineNAURUsually 40-220 mmol/D
Sodium, Body FluidNABF
Sodium, Serum / PlasmaNA
< 1 year 131 - 145 mmol/L
≥ 1 year 135 - 145 mmol/L


1. Normal range for children less than 1 year old adapted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
2. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 271 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Sodium, random urineNAUOutput varies with diet, but the concentration usually exceeds 20 mmol/L.
Sodium, stoolNASTL
Sodium, whole blood (MtZ Only)NAWB136-146 mmol/L
Sperm Count and MotilitySPMO
Count > 20 x109/L
Motility at 1 hour > 50%
Sperm Count, Post VasectomyPSCTNegative
Spinal Muscular AtrophySMAPCR
SMN1 2 copies or more
SMN2 0 to 5 copies
Sporotrichosis SerologyMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
St. Louis Equine Encephalitis AntibodySLOUB
IgG <1:16 titer
igM <1:20 titer
Staph aureus CultureP115
Steroid Panel, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (New MOLT test)MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Stone AnalysisSTONE
Stool AnalysisSTAN
pH > 6.5
Reducing substances negative
Streptococcus Group A Antigen
P116Negative
Streptococcus Group A CultureP118Negative
Streptococcus Group B CultureP138
Streptococcus pneumoniae Antigen, urine TEST NOT OFFERED AT UCSFNone - Do Not Order
Strongyloides Antibody (IgG)STRONGNegative
Strongyloides speciesP412Negative
Subtelomere FISHCYSUBNormal. See Additional Information
Sulfatide AntibodiesMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
IgM IgG
Normal < 1100 < 900 Elevated 1100 900 Very High 1700 1500
Syphilis serologic testing
T&B-Cell Crossmatch by Flow Cytometry (For Donor)ILTXFD
T&B-Cell Crossmatch by Flow Cytometry (Recipient)ILTXFR
T-Cell Crossmatch by Cytotoxicity (For Donor)ILTXCD
T-Cell Crossmatch by Cytotoxicity (Recipient)ILTXCR
T-Cell Crossmatch by Cytotoxicity w/ DTT (Recipient)ILTXDT
T-Cell Receptor Beta Gene Rearrangement TCRB
T-Cell Receptor Gamma Gene Rearrangement TCRG
T-cell Subsets, Regulatory TREGS
T3, ReverseT3RV
Male 9-28 ng/dL
Female 7-24 ng/dL
T3, TotalT3
Age Male Female
0-12 months 0.9-3.1 nmol/L 1.6-3.5 nmol/L


Age Male & Female
1-5 years 1.6-3.1 nmol/L
6-10 years 1.6-2.8 nmol/L
11-14 years 1.0-2.9 nmol/L
15-18 years 1.1-2.7 nmol/L
>18 years 0.9-2.4 nmol/L


Adult reference ranges adopted from manufacturer reference range studies (95% CI) and verified in-house using blood donor samples (N=124) (excluding autologous donors) on no medications and negative for anti-Tg and TPO antibodies.

Pediatric reference ranges adopted from Clinical Biochemistry 42 (2009) 885-891. Canadian Laboratory Initiative on Pediatric Reference Interval Database (CALIPER).
T4, TotalTT4
1-8 Years 5.9-11.5 mcg/dL
9-13 Years 4.7-10.4 mcg/dL
14-17 Years 5.0-9.8 mcg/dL
≥ 18 year old 4.8-10.4 mcg/dL


Pregnancy:
1st Trimester 6.4-15.2 mcg/dL
2nd Trimester 7.4-15.2 mcg/dL
3rd Trimester 7.7-13.8 mcg/dL
All Trimesters Together 7.0-14.7 mcg/dL
TH/TO AuoantibodiesTHTONegative
TRH Stimulation TestTSH 2-4x basal and > 10 mIU/L 15-30 min post-TRH
Tacrolimus, TroughTAC
Therapeutic trough 5 -15 µg/L
Tapeworm SegmentsP404
TdTTDTNegative
Temporarily unavailable as of 11/21/2011
Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor -1 Activity
PAI1
≥ 18 year old males 2.0-47.1 IU/mL
≥ 18 year old females 2.0-40.7 IU/mL
Testosterone, Free (includes Total Testosterone)FTST Testosterone, Total:

Age Males Females
Cord Blood 17-61 ng/dL 16-44 ng/dL
1-10 days ≤ 187 ng/dL ≤ 24 ng/dL
1-3 months 72-344 ng/dL ≤ 17 ng/dL
3-5 months ≤ 201 ng/dL ≤ 12 ng/dL
5-7 months ≤ 59 ng/dL ≤ 13 ng/dL
7-12 months ≤ 16 ng/dL ≤ 11 ng/dL
1-5.9 years ≤ 5 ng/dL ≤ 8 or less
6-7.9 years ≤ 25 ng/dL ≤ 20 or less
8-10.9 years ≤ 42 ng/dL ≤ 35 or less
11-11.9 years ≤ 260 ng/dL ≤ 40 ng/dL
12-13.9 years ≤ 420 ng/dL ≤ 40 ng/dL
14-17.9 years ≤ 1000 ng/dL ≤ 40 ng/dL
18-69 years 250 - 1100 ng/dL 2 - 45 ng/dL
70-89 years 90 - 890 ng/dL 2 - 40 ng/dL


Pediatric Reference Ranges by Pubertal Stage :
Stages Males Females
I ≤ 5 ng/dL ≤ 8 ng/dL
II ≤ 167 ng/dL ≤ 24 ng/dL
III 21-719 ng/dL ≤ 28 ng/dL
IV 25-912 ng/dL ≤ 31 ng/dL
V 110-975 ng/dL ≤ 33 ng/dL


Testosterone, Free:

Age Males Females
5-9.9 years ≤ 5.3 pg.mL 0.2-5.0 pg.mL
10-13.9 years 0.7-52.0 pg/mL 0.1-7.4 pg/mL
18-69 years 35.0-155.0 pg/mL 0.1-6.4 pg/mL
70-89 years 30.0-135.0 pg/mL 0.2-3.7 pg/mL
14-17.9 years 18.0-111.0 pg/mL 0.5-3.9 pg/mL
Testosterone, Total, PediatricPTES
Age Males Females
Premature (26-28 weeks) 59-125 ng/dL 5-16 ng/dL
Premature (31-35 weeks) 37-198 ng/dL 5-22 ng/dL
Newborn 75-400 ng/dL 20-64 ng/dL
1-5 months 14-363 ng/dL < 20 ng/dL
6-24 months < 37 ng/dL < 9 ng/dL
2-3 years < 15 ng/dL < 20 ng/dL
4-5 years < 19 ng/dL < 30 ng/dL
6-7 years < 13 ng/dL < 7 ng/dL
8-9 years 2-8 ng/dL 1-11 ng/dL
10-11 years 2-165 ng/dL 3-32 ng/dL
12-13 years 3-619 ng/dL 6-50 ng/dL
14-15 years 31-733 ng/dL 6-52 ng/dL
16-17 years 158-826 ng/dL 9-58 ng/dL
18-39 years 300-1080 ng/dL 9-55 ng/dL
40-59 years 300-890 ng/dL 9-55 ng/dL
60 years and older 300-720 ng/dL 5-32 ng/dL


Tanner Stage Males Females
Tanner Stage I 2-15 ng/dL 2-17 ng/dL
Tanner Stage II 3-303 ng/dL 5-40 ng/dL
Tanner Stage III 10-851 ng/dL 10-63 ng/dL
Tanner Stage IV-V 162-847 ng/dL 11-62 ng/dL
Testosterone,TotalTTES
Males ≥ 18 yeaers 240-871 ng/mL
Females ≥ 18 years 9-55 ng/dL


Reference ranges for females adapted from ARUP Laboratories & vendor performed studies and verified by in-house testing of 20 normal female volunteers in the UCSF laboratory.

Reference ranges for males adapted from vendor performed studies and verified by in-house testing of 22 normal male volunteers in the laboratory.
Tetanus AntitoxinTETA
Detectable > 0.1 IU/mL
Protective > 0.15 IU/mL
Tetrahydrocannabinol Screen, UrineTHCNegative

Note: a negative result indicates that this class of drugs is not present, or they are present at a concentration below the cut-off concentration of 50 µg/L
Thallium, 24 hour urineMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Normal < 2 µg/L
Toxic > 200 µg/L
Thallium, random urineTHALR≤ 0.4 µg/g creatinine
TheophyllineTHEO
Therapeutic peak 5-20 mg/L
ThiocyanateSCN
Non-smokers < 0.4 mg/dL
Smokers < 2.0 mg/dL
Nitroprusside infusion < 2.9 mg/dL
Toxic > 10 mg/dL
ThiopentalMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Sedative 1-5 mg/L
Toxic > 10 mg/L
Anoxic Rx 20-60 mg/L
Thiopurine Metabolites (New test)THM
Thiopurine Methyltransferase Activity (New test)TMPTA
Thiopurine Methyltransferase, RBC MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
>21.0 EU Normal Activity
6.0-21.0 EU Intermediate Activity
<6.0 EU Low Activity
Thiopurine methyl transferase GenotypingTPMTGN
ThrombelastographTEG, HEPTEG
Reaction time (R) 5.0-10.4 minutes
Kinetics (K) 0.8-2.8 minutes
Angle 55.2-78.4 degrees
Max. Amplitude (MA) 50.6-69.4 mm
Lysis 30 min. post-peak (LY30) 0.0-4.3%


Note: Although pediatric normal ranges have not been extensively evaluated the results obtained from pediatric samples do not appear to differ appreciatively from adult samples.
Thrombin TimeTT21.6-30.1 sec
Thyroglobulin AntibodiesTGAB< 2.00 IU/mL

Reference range is based on the functional CV cutoff (20% CV cutoff) for the assay estimated by monitoring the CV in low end patient pools and samples tested over periods of 1 - 6 months. This functional CV cutoff is in accord with that reported by Pickett et al, Ann Clin Biochem, 49:463-467, 2012 for the Abbott Architect assay. Approximately 80% of healthy subjects with normal thyroid function tests and no thyroperoxidase antibodies will have an anti-TG antibody level < 2.00 IU/mL in this assay. The normal range cutoff has been set at the lower reporting limit of the assay (functional CV cutoff) in accordance with the view that any detectable level of anti-thyroglobulin antibody may be considered abnormal and might negatively interfere in the thyroglobulin assay.
Thyroglobulin, Body Fluid (FNA) TGLBF
Thyroglobulin, Ultrasensitive (Tumor Marker; includes anti-Tg Ab testing)TGA Thyroglobulin:
Male 1.4-29.2 µg/L
Female 1.5-38.5 µg/L


Thyroglobulin Ab* < 2.00 IU/mL


*Reference range is based on the functional CV cutoff (20% CV cutoff) for the assay estimated by monitoring the CV in low end patient pools and samples tested over periods of 1 - 6 months. This functional CV cutoff is in accord with that reported by Pickett et al, Ann Clin Biochem, 49:463-467, 2012 for the Abbott Architect assay. Approximately 80% of healthy subjects with normal thyroid function tests and no thyroperoxidase antibodies will have an anti-TG antibody level < 2.00 IU/mL in this assay. The normal range cutoff has been set at the lower reporting limit of the assay (functional CV cutoff) in accordance with the view that any detectable level of anti-thyroglobulin antibody may be considered abnormal and might negatively interfere in the thyroglobulin assay
Thyroid Stimulating HormoneTSH0.45-4.12 mIU/L
Thyroid Stimulating ImmunoglobulinTSINegative <140% of baseline (See Additional information)
Thyroperoxidase AntibodiesATPO
Negative < 60 U/mL
Positive ≥ 60 U/mL
Thyrotropin Binding Inhibitory ImmunoglobulinTBII
Normal < 16% inhibition
Thyroxine Binding GlobulinTBG
4-6 years 14.8-32.9 µg/mL
7-8 years 16.3-30.7 µg/mL
9-10 years 15.8-27.4 µg/mL
11 years 15.5-27.4 µg/mL
12 years 14.8-26.2 µg/mL
13 years 13.8-25.2 µg/mL
14 years 12.2-25.2 µg/mL
15 years 10.8-23.8 µg/mL
16 years 10.0-23.8 µg/mL
17 years 8.5-23.1 µg/mL


Tanner Stages Males Females
Stage I 13.5-28.4 µg/mL 14.2-28.5 µg/mL
Stage II 15.1-25.9 µg/mL 15.0-23.1 µg/mL
Stage III 14.0-26.3 µg/mL 13.7-23.0 µg/mL
Stage IV 13.2-25.0 µg/mL 12.0-22.8 µg/mL
Stage V 12.2-23.7 µg/mL 9.1-22.8 µg/mL


≥ 18 year old females 13.5-30.9 µg/mL
≥ 18 year old males 12.7-25.1 µg/mL


To convert to nmol/L, multiply the result by 18.5.



Tissue Immmunoflorescence-IgA AntibodyUCSFNegative Titer < 1:10
Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody, IgATTGT
Negative < 20.0 Units


See "Additional information"
Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody, IgGTTGTGGNegative < 20.0 Units

See Additional information
TobramycinTOBPK (Peak), TOBTH (Trough), TOBRN (Random)
Therapeutic peak 5-10 mg/L


Trough levels:
Standard dosing < 2 mg/L (< 1 mg/L optimum)
Once daily, high dose < 1 mg/L (< 0.3 mg/L optimum)
ICN extended interval dosing < 2 mg/L (< 1.5 mg/L optimum)
CF extended interval dosing < 1 mg/L


Source of reference range: UCSF/SFGH/VASF joint guidelines for antimicrobial use in adults.

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TocainideMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Therapeutic 4-10 mg/L
Potentially toxic > 10 mg/L
TocopherolsVITE
Age alpha-tocopherol
Cord blood at term 1.8-5.8 mg/L
4-11 months < 9.1 mg/L
1-2 years 2.9-16.6 mg/L
3-5 years 5.5-11.8 mg/L
6-8 years 4.6-14.8 mg/L
9-11 years 6.2-14.3 mg/L
12-17 years 3.7-12.4 mg/L
> 17 years 5.7-19.9 mg/L


Age beta/gamma tocopherols
3-17 years 0.5-3.8 mg/L
> 17 years < 4.4 mg/L
TopiramateTOPA
Daily dose (mg) Peak Trough
100 6.5-9.2 µg/mL 4.5-6.6 µg/mL
200 12-16 µg/mL 8-12 µg/mL
400 20-30 µg/mL 14-20 µg/mL
Total Tryptase TTRP2-10 ng/mL
Toxocara species AntibodyTOXOC (MOLT for vitreous samples)

For vitreous samples order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)
Negative
Toxoplasma gondii Antibody, IgGTOXONegative
Toxoplasma gondii Antibody, IgG & IgMTOGMNegative
Toxoplasma gondii Antibody, IgG, CSFTXCG
Negative < 0.90
Equivocal 0.9-1.09 Positive ≥ 1.10
Toxoplasma gondii Antibody, IgM, CSFTXCM and TXCG
Negative < 0.90
Equivocal 0.9-1.09
Positive ≥ 1.10
Toxoplasma gondii stainP403
Toxoplasma gondii, DNATXPCRNot detected
Trace Metal Analysis Collection and Processing Instructions
TransferrinTRFN182-360 mg/dL
Transferrin, beta-2-B2TAUNegative
Translocation 11 / 14 FISH TR1114Absent
Translocation 14 / 16 FISH TR1416Absent
Translocation 14/18 FISH (New test)TR1418Not detected
Translocation 4 / 14 FISH TR414Absent
Translocation 8/14 FISH (New test)TR814Not detected
Translocation 8:21 FISHTR821No translocation
TrazodoneTRAZ
Therapeutic 800-1600 ng/mL
Treponemal AntibodyTPABNon-reactive
Trichinella spiralis Antibody, IgGTRICGNegative
Trichomonas vaginalis CultureP415Negative
Triene/Tetraene RatioEFA
Triglycerides, Body fluidTGBF
Triglycerides, serumTRIG
Desirable < 150 mg/dL
Borderline high 150-199 mg/dL
High 200-499 mg/dL
Very high ≥ 500 mg/dL


Risk classification is according to NCEP-ATPIII guidelines (JAMA 2001;285:2486)
Trisomy 12 FISHTRIS12Absent
Trisomy 8 FISHTRIS8Not detected
Troponin ITRPI< 0.05 µg/L
Troponin I at Mount ZionTRIPOC< 0.09 µg/L
Trypanosoma cruzi Antibodies (IgG & IgM)TCABNegative
Trypanosoma cruzi, cultureP406
Trypanosoma species, Direct smearsP409
Tularemia AgglutininsTULANegative titer < 20 Equivocal titer 20-80 Positive titer > 80
Tumor CytogeneticsCYTUM
Type and ScreenTYSC
Type and Screen, Non-patientTSNP
Type and Screen, PrenatalABPR
Typhus (Murine) Antibodies (IgG & IgM)MOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative
Tyrosine, plasmaTYRO
0-30 days 33-160 µmol/L
31 days-23 months 24-125 µmol/L 2-17 years 31-108 µmol/L ≥ 18 years 38-96 µmol/L
U3 RNP AutoantibodyU3RNPNegative
UDP Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1UGT1A1
Wildtype *1/*1


(Most common normal allele is 6 repeats (= *1)
Unstable Hemoglobin, Isopropanol screenUHGBINone detected
Urea ClearanceURCLSee additional information
Urea Nitrogen, 24 hour (or timed) urineUNU10-20 g/D
Urea Nitrogen, Body FluidUNB
Urea Nitrogen, Serum / PlasmaBUN
0 - 4 years 5-27 mg/dL
≥ 5 years 6-22 mg/dL


Note:
1. Normal range for children 0-5 years adapted from Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345
2. Normal range for adults used for children 5-17 years. Beckman Coulter's "Pediatric Reference Range Guidelines for Synchron Systems" Bulletin 9345 for 5-15 year olds comparable to adult range.
2. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 270 male and female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Urea Nitrogen, random urineUNURSee Additional Information
Urea Reduction RatioURR
Ureaplasma / mycoplasma hominis cultureP319Negative
Uric Acid, 24 hour (or timed) urineUCAU250-750mg/D
Uric Acid, Serum / PlasmaURIC
Age Male Female
< 1 month 1.2-3.9 mg/dL 1.0-4.6 mg/dL
1 month - 11 months 1.2-5.6 mg/dL 1.1-5.4 mg/dL
1 year - 3 years 2.1-5.6 mg/dL 1.8-5.0 mg/dL
4 years - 6 years 1.8-5.5 mg/dL 2.0-5.1 mg/dL
7 years - 9 years 1.8-5.4 mg/dL 1.8-5.4 mg/dL
10 years - 12 years 2.2-5.8 mg/dL 2.5-5.9 mg/dL
13 years - 15 years 3.1-7.0 mg/dL 2.2-6.4 mg/dL
16 years - 17 years 2.1-7.6 mg/dL 2.4-6.6 mg/dL
≥ 18 years 3.9-8.2 mg/dL 2.9-6.6 mg/dL


1. Pediatric reference ranges adopted from Soldin, Steven J. Pediatric Reference Intervals (method 3), 6th edition, AACC Press, 2007.
2. Normal range for adults was determined by testing 137 male and 129 female healthy blood donors at UCSF.
Uric Acid, random urineUAURSee Additional Information
Urinalysis, MacroscopicUA (macroscopic alone) or UAWM (with microscopy)
Protein Negative
Glucose Negative
Ketones Negative
Bilirubin Negative
Hemoglobin (Myoglobin) Negative
Nitrite Negative
Leukocyte Esterase Negative
Urobilinogen Negative
pH 4.5-8.0
Specific Gravity 1.002-1.030
Urinalysis, MicroscopicUMIO (microscopy alone) or UAWM (with macroscopic urinalysis)See Urinalysis, Macroscopic for dipstick testing normal ranges.

Microscopy normal ranges:

< 5 WBC/HPF
< 3 RBC/HPF

Data based on minimum sample size of 10 mL and may not be applicable to samples of less than 10 mL.
Urine CultureP059
Urine Culture and Gram stain (to modify treatment prior to culture results)P059SSee Additional Information
UroVysion (TM) FISHUROV≤ 3 cells showing gains for 2 or more chromosomes (3, 7 or 17) in the same cell and ≤ 11 cells showing zero 9p21 signals.
VAP Cholesterol Panel (New test)See report
VAP TM Cholesterol TestVAPP
Total LDL Chol. < 130 mg/dL
Total HDL Chol. ≥ 40 mg/dL
Total VLDL Chol. < 30 mg/dL
Total Chol. < 200 mg/dL
Triglyceride < 150 mg/dL
LDL + VLDL < 160 mg/dL
ApoB100 < 109 mg/dL
Lp(a) < 10 mg/dL
IDL < 20 mg/dL
LDL-R (Real)-C < 100 mg/dL
Total LDL-C < 130 mg/dL
Real LDL Size pattern A
Remnant Lipo (IDL+VLDL3) < 30 mg/dL
HDL-2 Male > 10 mg/dL
HDL-2 Female > 15 mg/dL
HDL-3 Male > 30 mg/dL
HDL-3 Female > 25 mg/dL
VLDL-3 < 10 mg/dL
VDRL, CSFVDRLNon-reactive
Vaginal smear for Bacterial vaginosis/yeast P058Nugent score < 7 without Clue cells or Nugent score < 4 if Clue cells present
Valproic acidVALP
Therapeutic 50-125 mg/L


VPA therapeutic range of 50 - 125 mg/L was set based on recommendations in the literature and consultations with UCSF pharmacists and neurologists.
Source: Valproate: Drug information copyright 1978-2012, Lexicomp, Inc. Accessed at UpToDate www.uptodate.com August 2012.
VancomycinVANC
Therapeutic trough, standard cases 10-20 mg/L
Therapeutic trough, exceptional cases 15-20 mg/L


Source of reference range: UCSF/SFGH/VASF joint guidelines for antimicrobial use in adults.

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Vanillylmandelic Acid, urineVMA
1-12 months < 36 mg/g Creatinine
1-2 years < 31 mg/g Creatinine
2-5 years < 17 mg/g Creatinine
5-10 years < 15 mg/g Creatinine
> 10 years < 11 mg/g Creatinine
Varicella-zoster Antibody, IgGVZINon-immune: Negative
Varicella-zoster Antigen (DFA)P346Negative
Varicella-zoster DNAP339Not detected
Vasoactive Intestinal PeptidesVIP22-42 pg/mL
Vectra DA VECTRASee report
Vibrio CultureP159
Viral Culture, Eye P324
Viral Culture, otherP324
Viral SerologyIDABNegative
Vitamin AVITA Age:
1-6 years 20-43 µg/dL
7-12 years 26-49 µg/dL
13-19 years 26-72 µg/dL
> 19 years 38-98 µg/dL
Vitamin B1, bloodVIB178-185 nmol/L
Vitamin B12VB12
Normal 211-911 ng/L


Reference range adopted from vendor performed studies and verified by running blood donor samples (excluding autologous donors) collected at the UCSF Blood Donor Center.
Vitamin B2 (New test)VIB26.2-39.0 nmol/L
Vitamin B3 (New test)VIB3Due to the large variability in the metabolism of nicotinic acid, the dosing preparation used (immediate-release vs. extended release), and the mg doses used, the serum concentrations may range from <20 ng/mL to about 30,000 ng/mL. After oral administration of an immediate-release tablet, peak plasma concentrations occur in 4 to 5 hours. The plasma half-life of nicotinic acid is about one hour. In one study, fasting plasma concentrations were reported to be <20 ng/mL. In another study, it was reported that the administration of a single 1000 mg extended-release tablet resulted in mean nicotinic acid concentrations of <50 ng/mL.

Nicotinamide is a metabolite of nicotinic acid. Due to the large variability in the metabolism of nicotinic acid, plasma concentrations of this metabolite are variable. In one study, fasting plasma concentrations were reported to be approximately 40 ng/mL. In another study it was reported that the administration of single 1000 mg of extended-release tablet of nicotinic acid resulted in a mean peak nicotinamide concentration of 400 ng/mL between 5 and 10 hours post dose, decreasing to about 100 ng/mL by 16 hours post dose.
Vitamin B6VIB6
2-17 years 3.0-35 ng/mL
> 17 years 2.1-21.7 ng/mL
Vitamin D, 1,25-Dihydroxy-VDHD
3-17 years 27-71 pg/mL
≥ 18 years 15-60 pg/mL
Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy25HD 30-100 ng/mL

Vit. D excess > 150 ng/mL
Vit. D sufficiency > 30 ng/mL
Vit. D insufficiency 10-30 ng/mL
Vit. D deficiency < 10 ng/mL
Vitamin KVITK80-1160 pg/mL
Volatile screen (New test)VOLA
1) ETHANOL: no therapeutic/normal range, limit of detection: 10 mg/dL, critical value: > 400 mg/dL


When blood ethanol has reached the level of 50 mg/dL, euphoria, social disinhibition, mild ataxia, slowed reflexes and judgment are observed. Serum levels are 10 – 35 % greater than whole blood levels. Coma may occur when the blood ethanol reaches 300 mg/dL and death may result when levels exceed 400 mg/dL.

2) METHANOL: no therapeutic/normal range, limit of detection: 10 mg/dL, toxic level: > 20mg/dL


When ingested methanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to formaldehyde and subsequently by aldehyde dehydrogenase to formic acid. These metabolites can cause an anion gap metabolic acidosis and retinal damage. Measurement of the osmolality and calculation of the osmolal gap is helpful to screen patients who may be intoxicated with methanol.

3) ISOPROPANOL and ACETONE: no therapeutic/normal range, limit of detection: 10 mg/dL, toxic level: variable


Unlike the other common alcohol substitutes methanol and ethylene glycol, isopropanol is not metabolized to highly toxic organic acids and therefore does not produce a profound anion gap metabolic acidosis. Isopropanol is metabolized to acetone, both of which are potent CNS depressants. Ingestion may result in coma and respiratory arrest. Levels higher than 150 mg/dL usually cause coma, but patients with levels up to 500 mg/dL have survived with supportive care and dialysis.
VoriconazoleVORICAchievable steady state levels with typical dosing range from 2.0-6.0 µg/mL.

Serum trough levels of ≤ 1.0 µg/mL are reported to be associated with lack of therapeutic response.
Serum trough levels of > 6.0 µg/mL have been reported to be associated with reversible neurological adverse events and hepatotoxicity.

References:
Hamada et al. Practice Guidelines for therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole: a consensus review of the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. 2013; 19(3): 381-392.

Pascual et al. Challenging recommended oral and intravenous voriconazole doses for improved efficacy and safety: Population pharmacokinetics-based analysis of adult patients with invasive fungal infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2012; 55(3): 381-390.
WBC CountCBC, CBCD, WBC, WBCDF
0-24 hours 9.0-38.0 x109/L
24 hours-1 wk 5.0-34.0 x109/L
1 wk-6 months 5.0-21.0 x109/L
6 months -4 years 5.5-17.5 x109/L
4-14 years 4.5-15.5 x109/L
14-21 years 4.5-13.2 x109/L
> 21 years 3.4-10.0 x109/L
Warfarin Genotype WARFN
West Nile Virus Antibodies, Serum (IgG & IgM) WNVS West Nile Virus IgG:
Negative <1.30
Equivocal 1.30-1.49
Positive ≥1.50


West Nile Virus IgM:
Negative <0.90
Equivocal 0.90-1.10
Positive >1.10
West Nile Virus Antibody, CSFWNVC West Nile Virus IgG, CSF:
Negative <1.30
Equivocal 1.30-1.49
Positive ≥1.50


West Nile Virus IgM, CSF:
Negative <0.90
Equivocal 0.90-1.10
Positive >1.10
West Nile Virus Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT)Only orderable as package PTXIDNon-reactive
Western Equine Encephalitis AntibodiesWEEB
IgG < 1:16 titer
IgM < 1:20 titer
White Blood Cell Antibodies
White Blood Cell DifferentialCBCD, WBCDF Normal Absolute Counts in x109/L (95% confidence interval):

AGE NEUTS LYMPH MONO EO BASO
0-24 hours 5.0-28 2.0-12 0.4-3.1 0.0-0.9 0.0-0.6
24 hours-1 wk 1.5-21 2.0-17 0.3-2.7 0.1-1.1 0.0-0.3
1 wk-6 months 1.0-10 2.0-17 0.2-2.7 0.1-1.1 0.0-0.3
6 months -4 years 1.0-8.5 2.0-14 0.0-0.9 0.0-1.1 0.0-0.3
4-14 years 1.5-8.5 1.2-8.0 0.0-1.4 0.0-1.1 0.0-0.3
14-21 years 1.8-8.0 1.0-6.1 0.0-1.4 0.0-0.8 0.0-0.3
> 21 years 1.8-6.8 1.0-3.4 0.2-0.8 0.0-0.4 0.0-0.1
Whole Blood Electrolytes
NLYTE NCPL Na, K, Cl, iCa
BLYTE MtZ Na, K, iCa
Sodium 136-146 mmol/L

Potassium:
0-6 months 3.0-5.4 mmol/L
> 6 months 3.4-4.5 mmol/L


Chloride: 98-106 mmol/L


Ionized Calcium:
0-6 months 0.95-1.50 mmol/L
> 6 months 1.15-1.29 mmol/L
Wright's Stain, body fluidWSBF
XX/XY FISHXXXY
Yersinia AgglutininsMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative titer < 20
Yersinia only CultureP158
ZAP-70ZAP70ZAP-70+/CD19+ ratio < 10%
Zinc ProtoporphyrinZIPP0-69 µmol ZPP/mol Hem

Refer to current OSHA regulations for exposure criteria.
Zinc, 24 hour urineZINU100-1200 µg/24 hours
Zinc, plasmaZINC55 - 150 µg/dL (mcg/dL)
Zinc, random urineZINUR
2nd voided urine in non-exposed ≥ 18 year old 100-810 µg/g creatinine
ZonisamideZONI10-40 µg/mL
cKITMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)Negative for mutations of exons tested.
pH, Body fluidPHB
pH, stoolPHF> 6.5
pH, urinePHU4.6-8.0
vWF Exon 28 Gene AnalysisMOLT (Order in Apex as 'Miscellaneous Outside Lab Test' using the complete test name above)NEG
von Willebrand Factor - Factor 8 Binding RatioVW2NR
vWF-Factor VIII binding ratio 0.73-1.42
von Willebrand Factor AntigenVWFAG42-191%

See Additional Information
von Willebrand Factor Cleaving ProteaseVWFCP
ADAMTS13 68-163%
ADAMTS13 Inhibitor < 0.4 BEU
von Willebrand Factor Multimers VWMULTNormal pattern
von Willebrand PanelVWP

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